Wessex was won over by an independent adventurer, the Frank Birinus, who had no connection with the earlier arrivals in Kent.
BURGRED, king of Mercia, succeeded to the throne in 852, and in 852 or 853 called upon ZEthelwulf of Wessex to aid him in subduing the North Welsh.
The armies of Wessex and Mercia did no serious fighting, and the Danes were allowed to remain through the winter.
In 779 he was at war with Cynewulf of Wessex from whom he wrested Bensington.
In 789 Offa secured the alliance of Berhtric of Wessex by giving him his daughter Eadburg in marriage.
It is customary to ascribe to Offa a policy of limited scope, namely the establishment of Mercia in a position equal to that of Wessex and of Northumbria.
This king was an enthusiastic Christian, and converted Ceenwalh, king of Wessex, who had fled to his court.
East Anglia was subject to the supremacy of the Mercian kings until 825, when its people slew Beornwulf of Mercia, and with their king acknowledged Ecgberht (Egbert) of Wessex as their lord.
It is first mentioned in 705 as the place where St Aldhelm fixed his bishop-stool for the new diocese of Western Wessex, being chosen probably for its central position.
ZEthelberht, king of Wessex, was buried here by the side of his brother iEthelbald in 866.
In Anglo-Saxon England in the 7th and 8th centuries it seems certain that each of the larger kingdoms, Kent, Wessex, Mercia and Northumbria, had its separate witan, or council, but there is a difference of opinion as to whether this was identical with, or distinct from, the folkmoot, in which, theoretically at least, all freemen had the right to appear.
Its duties are shown by the preamble to the laws of Ine, king of Wessex, and 200 years later by the preamble to those of Alfred the Great, while several similar cases could be instanced.
On the one hand there was the mob violence that often amounted to sheer ruffianism, especially in Wessex and the home-counties.
At once he hastened north against Canute, Sweyn's son, who claimed to succeed his father, but Canute sailed away, only to return next year, when the traitor Edric joined him and Wessex submitted.
According to Bede, Wini, being expelled from his bishopric of Wessex in 635, took refuge with Wulfhere, king of the Mercians, of whom he purchased the see of London.
The English dialect in which the Anglo-Saxon laws have been handed down to us is in most cases a common speech derived from West Saxon - naturally enough as Wessex became the predominant English state, and the court of its kings the principal literary centre from which most of the compilers and scribes derived their dialect and spelling.
To the first division belong the laws of the Kentish kings, IEthelberht, Hlothhere and Eadric, Withraed; those of Ine of Wessex, of Alfred, Edward the Elder, lEthelstan,l Edmund, Edgar, 2Ethelred and Canute; the treaty between Alfred and Guthrum and the so-called treaty between Edward and Guthrum.
It is probable that no actual conflict took place, and in 959, on Edwy's death, Edgar acceded peaceably to the combined kingdoms of Wessex, Mercia and Northumbria.
As the laws of Ine of Wessex speak of Erconwald as "my bishop," it is possible that the influence of Wessex for a short time prevailed in Essex; but a subsequent charter of Swefred is approved by Coenred of Mercia, and Offa, the son of Sigehere, accompanied the same king to Rome in 709.
The first recorded event of his reign was a serious reverse at the hands of Ceawlin of Wessex in the year 568 (Chronicle) at a place called Wibbandune.
785), king of Wessex, succeeded to the throne in 757 on the deposition of Sigeberht.
15) states that the people of the more northern kingdoms (East Anglia, Mercia, Northumbria, &c.) belonged to the Angli, while those of Essex, Sussex and Wessex were sprung from the Saxons, and those of Kent and southern Hampshire from the Jutes.
B.) Ethelred I., king of Wessex and Kent (866-871), was the fourth son of lEthelwulf of Wessex, and should, by his father's will, have succeeded to Wessex on the death of his eldest brother lEthelbald.
According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle the kingdom of Sussex was founded by a certain Ella or /Elie, who landed in 477, while Wessex owed its origin to Cerdic, who arrived some eighteen years later.
Bede states that the invaders belonged to three different nations, Kent and southern Hampshire being occupied by Jutes, while Essex, Sussex and Wessex were founded by the Saxons, and the remaining kingdoms by the Angli.
The south of England, between Sussex and " West Wales (eventually reduced to Cornwall), was occupied by Wessex, which originally also possessed some territory to the north of the Thames.
To this category belong the shires of Wessex (Hampshire, Wiltshire, Berkshire, &c.), each of which had an earl (aldormon, princeps, dux) of its own, at all events from the 8th century onwards.
In addition to slaves, who in early times seem to have been numerous, we find in Wessex and apparently also in Mercia three classes, described as twelfhynde, sixhynde and twihynde from the amount of their wergilds, viz.
Here the wergild of the ceorlisc class amounted to ioo shillings, each containing twenty silver coins (sceattas), as against zoo shillings of four (in Wessex five) silver coins, and was thus very much greater than the latter.
The sheep was valued at a shilling in both Wessex and Mercia, from early times till the i ith century.
WESSEX, one of the kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon Britain.
For these reasons the story of the foundation of Wessex, though it appears to possess considerable antiquity, must be regarded as open to grave suspicion.
Berhtric was succeeded by Ecgberht (q.v.), the chief event of whose reign was the overthrow of the Mercian king Beornwulf in 825, which led to the establishment of West Saxon supremacy and to the annexation by Wessex of Sussex, Surrey, Kent and Essex.
IEthelwulf (q.v.), son of Ecgberht, succeeded to the throne of Wessex at his father's death in 839, while the eastern provinces went to his son or brother IEthelstan.
From this time onwards the history of Wessex is the history of England.
In the second year of his pontificate he baptized King Ceadwalla of Wessex at.
AETHELBERT, king of the West Saxons, succeeded to the sub-kingdom of Kent during the lifetime of his father Ã†thelwulf, and retained it until the death of his elder brother Ã†thelbald in 860, when he became sole king of Wessex and Kent, the younger brothers Ã†thelred and Alfred renouncing their claim.
When released he wandered first to Mercia, then to Wessex and finally to Sussex.
For nearly two years Wessex had a respite.
By the next year (879) not only Wessex, but Mercia, west of Watling Street, was cleared of the invader.
After the final dispersal of the Danish invaders Alfred turned his attention to the increase of the navy, and ships were built according to the king's own designs, partly to repress the ravages of the Northumbrian and East Anglian Danes on the coasts of Wessex, partly to prevent the landing of fresh hordes.
The breakdown of the English defences in all parts of the country save Wessex dates from 868: in Wessex that occurs in 877-88.
The other half under Halfdan (Ragnar Lodbrog's son ?) had never troubled itself about Wessex, but had taken firm possession in Northumbria.
Their course was not unchequered; but it was only in Wessex that they met with any effective resistance, and the victory of Ashdown (871) put no end to their advance; for, as we know, Alfred himself had at last wander a fugitive in the fastnesses of Selwood Forest.
The history of Sussex now becomes a blank until 607, in which year Ceolwulf of Wessex is found fighting against the South Saxons.
Nunna is probably to be identified with Nun, described in the Chronicle as the kinsman of Ine of Wessex who fought with him against Gerent, king of the West Welsh, in 710.
In 722 we find Ine of Wessex at war with the South Saxons, apparently because they were supporting a certain Aldbryht, probably an exile from Wessex.
In later times, however, the kingdom of the Hwicce appears to have been always subject to Mercian supremacy, and possibly it was separated from Wessex in the time of Edwin.
After them the title of king seems to have been given up. Their successor iEthelmund, who was killed in a campaign against Wessex in 802, is described only as an earl.
No genealogy or list of kings has been preserved, and we do not know whether the dynasty was connected with that of Wessex or Mercia.
The Danish king " Scyld Scefing," whose story is told in the opening lines of the poem, and his son Beowulf, are plainly identical with Sceldwea, son of Sceaf, and his son Beaw, who appear among the ancestors of Woden in the genealogy of the kings of Wessex given in the Old English Chronicle.
While together they held Wessex for Hardicanute, the atheling iElfred, son of Emma by her former husband 'Ethelred II., landed in England in the hope of winning back his father's crown; but falling into the hands of Godwine, he and his followers were cruelly done to death.
Like Alfred of Wessex, Rhodri also built a fleet in order to protect Anglesea, " the mother of Wales," so called on account of its extensive cornfields which supplied barren Gwynedd with provisions.
Investigations in this subject have rendered it very probable that the island of Nerthus was Sjaelland (Zealand), and it is further to be observed that the kings of Wessex traced their ancestry ultimately to a certain Scyld, who is clearly to be identified with Sk16ldr, the mythical founder of the Danish royal family (Skidldungar).
Danish tradition has preserved record of two governors of Schleswig, father and son, in their service, Frowinus (Freawine) and Wigo (Wig), from whom the royal family of Wessex claimed descent.
He issued a written code of laws for Wessex, which is still preserved.
A wider grouping according to natural characteristics may now be recognized only in the cases of Wales, East Anglia, Wessex and such less definite groups as the Home Counties around London or the Midlands around Birmingham.
This was terminated by the peace of Wedmore in 878, when the Danes withdrew from Wessex and settled finally in East Anglia under their king Guthrum.
Cenwalh, the last monarch who ascended the throne of Wessex unbaptized, carried the boundaries of that kingdom into Mid-Somersetshire, where they halted for a long space.
Indeed, there was nothing accomplished in the way of further encroachment on the Cdt after 686, save Incs and Cuthreds extension of Wessex into the valleys of the Tone and the Exe, and Offas slight expansion of the Mercian frontier beyond the Severn, marked by his famous dyke.
He annexed Kent and East Anglia,overawed Northumbria and Wessex, both hopelessly faction-ridden at the time, was treated almost as an equal by the emperor Charles the Great, and died still at the height of his power.
The ablest king in England in the generation that followed Off a was Ecgbert of Wessex, who had long been an exile abroad, and served for thirteen years as one of the captains of Suprem- Charles the Great.
His power was no greater than that of Oswio or Off a had been, and the supremacy might perhaps have tarried with Wessex no longer than it had tarried with Northumbria or Mercia if it had not chanced that the Danish raids were now beginning.
According to Asser he was compelled to give up Wessex to his son AEthelbald on his return, and content himself with the eastern sub-kingdom.