The chief streams are the Werra, which traverses the south and east of the duchy, and various tributaries of the Main and the Saale, so that Saxe-Meiningen belongs to the basins of the three great rivers Weser, Rhine and Elbe.
Oberhessen is hilly; though of no great elevation it extends over the water-parting between the basins of the Rhine and the Weser, and in the Vogelsberg it has as its culminating point the Taufstein (2533 ft.).
Colonel Schmettau's excellent survey of the country to the west of the Weser (1767-1787) was never published, as Frederick the Great feared it might prove of use to his military enemies.
Clothed in skins, like the troglodytes of the Weser, they make use of the same implements in bone and stone, eat carnivorous animals - the wolf included - and cherish the same superstitions (of which those regarding the teeth of the bear are perhaps the most characteristic) as were current among the StonePeriod inhabitants of W.
JULIUS WELLHAUSEN (1844-), German biblical scholar and Orientalist, was born at Hameln on the Weser, Westphalia, on the 17th of May 1844.
It falls into three distinct parts: (1) the largest portion, with the city of Bremen, lying on both banks, but chiefly on the right, of the lower course of the Weser, surrounded by the Prussian province of Hanover and the grandduchy of Oldenburg, and consisting in the main of lowland country intersected by canals and dykes; (2) the town and district of Vegesack, lying separate from, but immediately north of the main portion, on the right bank of the river; (3) the port of Bremerhaven, 46 m.
Down the Weser, at its mouth.
M., about one-half is meadow and grazing land, one-quarter under tillage, and the remainder occupied by a little woodland, some unprofitable sandy wastes, the bed of the Weser and the towns.
HAMELN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover, at the confluence of the Weser and Hamel, 33 m.
By the steamboats on the Weser there is communication with Karlshafen and Minden.
The Weser is here crossed by an iron suspension bridge 830 ft.
The troops of Cologne and Munster formed part of his army, other friends of Louis were preparing to take the field, and after a severe winter campaign, the elector, defeated in combat and manoeuvre, was forced back to the Weser, and being but weakly supported by the Imperialists, found himself compelled to make a separate peace (June 6th, 1673).
The Emmer, also belonging to the Weser system, is its chief stream.
Nearly the entire course of the Weser lies in Prussia, but it also touches part of Brunswick and Lippe, and after flowing through Bremen expands into an estuary separating the duchy of Oldenburg from the Prussian province of Hanover.
Between Miinden and Minden its course lies through a picturesque valley flanked by irregular and disjointed ranges of hills (Reinhardswald, Sollinger Wald, Weser Hills, &c.); but after it emerges from these mountains by the narrow pass called the "Porta Westfalica," near Minden, its banks become flat and uninteresting.
The Weser on the whole is shallow, and navigation above Bremen is sometimes interrupted by drought.
A system of waterways (the Geeste and Hadelner canals, meeting one another at Bederkesa) connects the estuary of the Weser with that of the Elbe; a canal between the Hunte and the Leda gives connexion with the Ems. On the upper Weser (above Bremen) the navigation, which is interrupted by occasional rapids, is assisted by locks and weirs.
The Werra and Fulda are both navigable when they unite to form the Weser, the Fulda being canalized between Cassel and the town of Fulda for a distance of 17 m.; the Aller, Wiimme, Geeste and Hunte are also navigable.
Below the junction of the Hunte the Weser, hitherto a single stream, is divided into several channels by islands.
The navigation of the Weser was long hampered by the various and vexatious claims and rights of the different states through whose territories it ran.
The principal town on the Weser is Bremen.
The Weser gave name to a department in the short-lived kingdom of Westphalia: the chief town was Osnabruck.
This act made the Saxons more furious than ever, but in 783 Charles inflicted two defeats upon them at Detmold and on the river Hase, and ravaged their territory from the Weser to the Elbe.
The Rotlagergebirge, Eggegebirge and Teutoburger Wald form with some intermediate ranges the watershed between the basin of the Weser and those of the Rhine and Ems. In the N.E.
Corner of the province the Weser divides the Wiehengebirge from the Wesergebirge by the narrow pass called Porta Westfalica.
The best agricultural land is in the Hellweg and the Weser basin.
An active trade is promoted by several trunk lines of railway which cross the province (total mileage in 1906, 1889 m., exclusive of light railways) and by the navigation of the Weser (on which Minden has a port), Ems, Ruhr and Lippe.
The Westphalian circle which was formed at the same time comprised nearly all the rest of the modern province (including Mark) and the lands north of it between the Weser and the frontier of the Netherlands, also Verden, Schaumburg, Nassau, Wied, Lippe, Berg, Cleves, Julich, Liege, Bouillon and Cambrai.
Helgoland), an island of Germany, in the North Sea, lying off the mouths of the Elbe and the Weser, 28 m.
The three chief rivers of the province are the Elbe in the north-east, where it mainly forms the boundary and receives the navigable tributaries Jeetze, Ilmenau, Seve, Este, Luhe, Schwinge and Medem; the Weser in the centre, with its important tributary the Aller (navigable from Celle downwards); and in the west the Ems, with its tributaries the Aa and the Leda.
The best agriculture is to be found in the districts of Hildesheim, Calenberg, GÃ¶ttingen and Grubenhagen, on the banks of the Weser and Elbe, and in East Friesland.
The rivers yield trout, salmon (in the Weser) and crayfish.
The natural port is BremenGeestemunde and to it is directed the river traffic down the Weser, which practically forms the chief commercial artery of the province.
His object was twofold: first, to obtain the control of the great German rivers the Elbe and the Weser, as a means of securing his dominion of the northern seas; and secondly, to acquire the secularized German bishoprics of Bremen and Werden as appanages for his younger sons.
BREMERHAVEN, a seaport town of Germany, in the free state of Bremen, on the right bank and estuary of the Weser, at the confluence of the Geeste, 38 m.
It lies on a sandy plain on both banks of the Weser, 46 m.
By the completion of the engineering works on the Weser in 1887-1899, whereby, among other improvements, the river was straightened and deepened to 18 ft., large ocean-going vessels are able to steam right up to the city itself.
In 787 Bremen was chosen by St Willehad, whom Charlemagne had established as bishop in the pagi of the lower Weser, as his see.
It inhabits France, Belgium, Switzerland, Western Germany (eastwards to the Weser), Spain and Portugal.
These are Franconia (Franken), which embraces the districts of Bamberg, Schweinfurt and Wurzburg on the upper Main; Swabia (Schwaben), in which is included Wtirttemberg, parts of Bavaria and Baden and Hohenzollern; the Palatinate (Pfalz), embracing Bavaria west of the Rhine and the contiguous portion of Baden; Rhineland, applied to Rhenish Prussia, Nassau, Hesse-Darmstadt and parts of Bavaria and Baden; Vogtland, the mountainous country lying in the south-west corner of the kingdom of Saxony; Lusatia (Lausitz), the eastern portion of the kingdom of Saxony and the adjacent portion of Prussia watered by the upper Spree; Thuringia (Thulingen), the country lying south of the Harz Mountains and including the Saxon duchies; East Frlesland (Ost Friesland), the country lying between the lower course of the Weser and the Ems, and Westphalia (Westfalen), the fertile plain lying north and west of the Harz Mountains and extending to the North Sea and the Dutch frontier.
To the west of the Harz a series of hilly tracts is comprised under the name of the Weser Mountains, out of which above Minden the river Weser bursts by the Porta Westphalica.
A narrow ridge, ~he Teutoburger Wald (1300 ft.), extends between the Weser and the Ems as far as the neighborhood of OsnabrQck.
Westward lies as the last link of this series the Luneburger Heide or Heath, between the Weser and Elbe, north of Hanover.
Those of the Memel, I regel, Vistula (Weichsel), Oder, Elbe, Weser, Ems, Rhine and Danube.
Of these the Pregel, Weser and Ems belong entirely, and the Oder mostly, to the German empire.
The Fulda, navigable for 63 m., and the Werra, 38 m., above the point where they unite, form by their junction the Weser, which has a course of 271 m., and receives as navigable tributaries the Aller, the Leine from Hanover, and some smaller streams. Oceangoing steamers, however, cannot get as far as Bremen, and unload at Bremerhaven.
West of the Weser the average temperature of January exceeds 32; to the east it sinks to 30, and therefore the Elbe is gem~erally covered with ice for some months of the year.
At the mouths of the Elbe and the Weser, in East Holstein.
The main centre is in East and West Prussia, then follow the marsh districts on the Elbe and Weser, some parts of Westphalia, Oldenburg, Lippe, Saxony and upper Silesia, lower Bavaria and klsace-Lorraine.
A project was sanctioned ir 1905 for a canal, adapted for vessels up to 600 tons, from th Rhine to the Weser at Hanover, utilizing a portion of the Dort mund-Ems canal; for a channel accommodating vessels of simila:
Noted academies of forestry are those of Tharandt (in Saxony), Eberswalde, Munden on the Weser, Hohenheim Year - 1570
He also penetrated into regions beyond and crossed the Weser, receiving the submission of the Bructeri, Chatti and Cherusci.
9 Quintilius Varus, the successor of Tiberius, was surprised in the Saltus Teutobergensis between the Lippe and the Weser by a force raised by Arminius, a chief of the Cherusci, and his army consisting of three legions was annihilated.
It has been thought that they inhabited the basin of the Weser, and a number of place-names in this district are supposed to be of Celtic origin.
The upper basin of the Weser was inhabited by the Chatti, whose capital was Mattium, supposed to be Maden on.
To the north-west of them were situated the Marsi, apparently between the Diemel and the Lippe, while the central part of the basin of the Weser was inhabited by the Cherusci, who seem to have extended considerably eastward.
The Warni apparently now dwelt in the regions about the mouth of the Elbe, while the whole coast from the mouth of the Weser to the west Scheldt was in the hands of the Frisians.
During this reign the towns entered upon an age of prosperity, and the Rhine and the Weser became great avenues of trade.
A similar treaty was made with Bremen, the free port of that city being situated near the mouth of the Weser at Bremerhaven; and in 1888, the necessary works having been completed, the cities entered the Customs Union.
It has been conjectured that the "estuary" here mentioned refers to the Baltic, the existence of which as a separate sea was unknown to all ancient geographers; but the obscure manner in which it is indicated, as well as the inaccuracy of the statements concerning the place from whence the amber was actually derived, both point to the sort of hearsay accounts which Pytheas might readily have picked up on the shores of the German Ocean, without proceeding farther than the mouth of the Ems, Weser or Elbe, which last is supposed by Ukert to have been the limit of his voyage in this direction.
Of Hanover, on the left bank of the Weser, which is spanned by two bridges.
To the south of Minden is the so-called "Porta Westfalica," a narrow defile by which the Weser quits the mountains.
CHERUSCI, an ancient German tribe occupying the basin of the Weser to the north of the Chatti.