During his long reign of forty-nine years Poland had gradually risen to the rank of a great power, a result due in no small measure to the insight and sagacity of the first Jagiello, who sacrificed every other consideration to the vital necessity of welding the central Sla y s into a compact and homogeneous state.
In purely political matters also both initiative and fulfilment came entirely from the Crown, and to the last of the Jagiellos Poland owed the important acquisition of Livonia and the welding together of her loosely connected component parts into a single state by the Union of.
Thermit Welding-Two >>
As the carbon-content increases the welding power naturally decreases rapidly, because of the rapid fall of the " solidus curve at which solidification is complete (Aa of fig.
The welding together of the great Kosala kingdom, more than twice the size of England, in the very centre of the settled country, led insensibly but irresistibly to the establishment of a standard of speech, and the standard followed was the language used at the court at Savatthi in the Nepalese hills, the capital of Kosala.
The chief adviser of Theodoric, the East Gothic king in Italy, he accepted with ardour that monarch's great scheme, if indeed, he did not himself originally suggest it, of welding Roman and Goth together into one harmonious state which should preserve the social refinement and the intellectual culture of the Latin-speaking races without losing the hardy virtues of their Teutonic conquerors.
But in so welding together the scattered centres and binding them to the papacy, Boniface seems to have been actuated by simple zeal for unity of the faith, and not by a conscious political motive.
For medicine in England Harvey did what William Gilbert did for physics and Robert Boyle for chemistry: he insisted upon direct interrogation of natural processes, and thereby annihilated the ascendancy of mere authority, which, while nations were in the making, was an essential principle in the welding together of heterogeneous and turbulent peoples.
By carefully selecting certain portions and welding them together in a perfectly flawless mass, a pure amber-colored object is obtained at heavy cost.
The introduction of acetylene dissolved under pressure in acetone contained in cylinders filled with porous material drew attention again to this use of the gas, and by using a special construction of blowpipe an oxy-acetylene flame is produced, which is far hotter than the oxy-hydrogen flame, and at the same time is so reducing in its character that it can be used for the direct autogenous welding of steel and many minor metallurgical processes.
As in Europe, these northern peoples will hold the power which intelligent democracies are consciously absorbing, and the British faculty for statecraft is gradually welding new nations on the British model, without the obsolete traditions and without that human sediment which too frequently chokes the currents of national vitality in the older communities of Europe.
This usefulness iron owes in part, indeed, to its abundance, through which it has led us in the last few thousands of years to adapt our ways to its; but still in chief part first to the single qualities in which it very weak; conducting heat and electricity easily, and again offering great resistance to their passage; here welding readily, there incapable of welding; here very infusible, there melting with relative ease.
Excels, such as its strength, its magnetism, and the property which it alone has of being made at will extremely hard by sudden cooling and soft and extremely pliable by slow cooling; second, to the special combinations of useful properties in which it excels, such as its strength with its ready welding and shaping both hot and cold; and third, to the great variety of its properties.
Beyond this, wrought iron, and certain classes of steel which then were important, necessarily contained much slag or " cinder," because they were made by welding together pasty particles of metal in a bath of slag, without subsequent fusion.
Clearly the mushy mixture of solid austenite and molten iron of which the metal in region 2 consists cannot cohere under either the blows or the pressure by means of which welding must be done.
Slag or Cinder, a characteristic component of wrought iron, which usually contains from 0.20 to 2.00% of it, is essentially a silicate of iron (ferrous silicate), and is present in wrought iron simply because this product is made by welding together pasty granules of iron in a molten bath of such slag, without ever melting the resultant mass or otherwise giving the envelopes of slag thus imprisoned a chance to escape completely.
Hence steel which has been heated very highly, whether for welding, or for greatly softening it so that it can be rolled to the desired shape with but little expenditure of power, ought later to be refined, either by reheating it from below Are to slightly above Ac 3 or by rolling it after it has cooled to a relatively low temperature, i.e.
It is still in great demand for certain normal purposes for which either great ease in welding or resistance to corrosion by rusting is of great importance; for purposes requiring special forms of extreme ductility which are not so confidently expected in steel; for miscellaneous needs of many users, some ignorant, some very conservative; and for remelting in the crucible processAll the best cutlery and tool steel is made either by the crucible process or in electric furnaces, and indeed all for which any considerable excellence is claimed is supposed to be so made, though often incorrectly.
29, is liable to become oxidized by the diffusion of the atmospheric oxygen, in which case it can hardly be completely welded later, since welding implies actual contact of metal with metal; it thus forms a permanent flaw.
But deepseated blowholes like those at B are relatively harmless in lowcarbon easily welding steel, because the subsequent operation of forging or rolling usually obliterates them by welding their sides firmly together.
A common war against a common enemy now appeared the surest means of welding the dissevered halves of Germany together, and for this war Bismarck steadily prepared.
On ordinary historical grounds it is probable that there was a political reorganization and a welding of the diverse elements throughout the land (J.
But all other complicated forms have to be united by other means - as welding, soldering, riveting or bolting.
Though now pierced by road and railway, they stood in former times as a barrier of mountain and jungle between northern and southern India, and formed one of the main obstructions to welding the whole into an empire.
While they were struggling to enforce their claims to universal sovereignty, the royal power, less extravagant but more real, was welding together the feudal states of France and moulding the England of to-day.
In reverberatory and air furnaces used in the different operations of iron manufacture, where an extremely high temperature has to be maintained in spaces of comparatively small extent, such as the beds of puddling, welding and steel-melting furnaces, the temperature of the exhaust gases is exceedingly high, and if allowed to pass directly into the chimney they appear as a great body of flame at the top. It is now general to save a portion of this heat by passing the flame through flues of steam boilers, air-heating apparatus, or both - so that the steam required for the necessary operations of the forge and heated blast for the furnace itself may be obtained without further expenditure of fuel.
His speech on the 3rd of March 1875 led to the resignation of Istoan Bitt6's administration and the welding of Deak's followers and the Leftcentre into a new party, the Szabadelvii part or Free Principles Party, which took office under Bela Wenckheim (1811-1879), whom (Oct.
For these invasions, paradoxical ~s it may seem, were the greatest efficient cause in the welding together of England.
Early in the 7th century B.C. Glaucus of Chios discovered the process of welding iron (K6XXouts: see J.
Though Frederick failed to subdue the republics, the failure can scarcely be said to reflect either on his prudence as a statesman or his skill as a general, for his ascendancy was finally overthrown rather by the ravages of pestilence than by the might of human arms. In Germany his resolute will and sagacious administration subdued or disarmed all discontent, and he not only succeeded in welding the various rival interests into a unity of devotion to himself against which papal intrigues were comparatively powerless, but won for the empire a prestige such as it had not possessed since the time of Otto the Great.
As in the social sphere, so also in the sphere of religious belief, we find the whole scale of types represented from the lowest to the highest; and here as there, we meet with the same failure of welding the confused mass into a well-ordered whole.