In short, if we recall the characteristics of the Church in the Weft from the times of Constantine to those of Theodoric - its reliance upon the civil power for favours and protection, combined with its assumption of a natural superiority over the civil power and its innate tendency to monarchical unity - it becomes clear that Gregory VII.
According to the qualities of raw silk used and the throwing operations undergone the principal classes of thrown silk are - (1) " singles," which consist of a single strand of twisted raw silk made up of the filaments of eight to ten cocoons; (2) tram or weft thread, consisting of two or three strands of raw silk not twisted before doubling and only lightly spun (this is soft, flossy and comparatively weak); (3) organzine, the thread used for warps, made from two and rarely three twisted strands spun in the direction contrary to that in which they are separately twisted.
A warp of silk and weft of some other fibre or weft of silk and a warp of cotton or other fibre.
The great bulk of the yarn spun in Great Britain ranges between comparatively narrow limits of count, and such staples as 32' to 36 s twist and 36' to 46' weft in American, 50 9 to 60 s twist and 42' to 62' weft in Egyptian, make up a large part of the total.
The word is sometimes particularly applied to cloths with a comparatively heavy weft, the distinction being made between the even "Mexican make" and the "pin-head" or "medium-make."
Raising-cloths are of various kinds and may be merely mediums with a heavy weft, or "condensor" weft made from waste yarns.
The essence of the raising-cloth is a weft that will provide plenty of nap and yet have sufficient fibre to maintain the strength of the web.
The warp is commonly from 36 8 to 44 8, the weft from 36 8 to 54 8, and the threads from 13 X 13 to 20X 20 to the 4 in.
Wide, the warp is from 32' to 36', the weft 32' to 40 8, and the counts 16X16 to 19X22.
The cloth is woven "one end up and two ends down," and as there are more picks of weft per inch than ends of warp the diagonal lines pass from selvage to selvage at an angle of less than 45 degrees.
The weft surface is the face or wearing surface of the cloth.
Fancy cotton goods are of great variety, and many of them have trade names that are used temporarily or occasion produced on the surface of the cloth by needles placed in a sliding frame; lustre, a light dress material with a lustrous face sometimes made with a cotton warp and woollen weft; zephyr, a light, coloured dress material usually in small patterns; bobbinnet, a machine-made fabric, originally an imitation of lace made with bobbins on a pillow.
The thread spun by the jenny could not, however, be used except as weft, being destitute of the firmness or hardness required in the longitudinal threads or warp. Arkwright supplied this deficiency by the invention of the spinning-frame, which spins a vast number of threads of any degree of fineness and hardness.
It was not until the introduction of cotton warps into the Bradford trade about 1836 that the true qualities of alpaca could be developed in the fabric. Where the cotton warp and mohair or alpaca weft plain-cloth came from is not known, but it was this simple yet ingenious structure which enabled Titus Salt, then a young Bradford manufacturer, to utilize alpaca successfully.