In these Flemish cities the early oligarchic form of municipal government speedily gave way to a democratic. The great mass of the townsmen organized in trade gilds - weavers, fullers, dyers, smiths, leather-workers, brewers, butchers, bakers and others, of which by far the most powerful was that of the weavers - as soon as they became conscious of their strength rebelled against the exclusive privileges of the patricians and succeeded in ousting them from power.
By the 14th century, however, the democratic craft gilds, notably that of the weavers, had asserted themselves; the citizens were divided for civic and military purposes into three classes; the rich (i.e.
Those living on capital), the weavers and the members of the 52 other gilds.
Some naturalists would add the finches (Fringillidae), rightly if we assume that the Ploceidae or weavers constitute a separate family.
There were numerous trade gilds, one of the chief being that of the weavers, which received a charter from Henry II.
The other birds include parrots, toucans, gaudily coloured cuckoos, lories, swallows, shrikes, sun-birds, kingfishers, weavers, finches, wild pigeons and crows.
A priest, " master of the wardrobe," is named as early as the VIth Dynasty, and later texts refer to the weavers and laundry servants of the temple.
The best silk-weavers are to be found at Amarapura.
The gild of weavers numbered 2400 members.
Many weavers fled to Holland and England, the duke took up his residence in the strong castle of Vilvorde, and Brussels prospered at the expense of Louvain.
When the king bestowed upon the tanners or weavers or any other body of artisans the right to have a gild, they secured the monopoly of working and trading in their branch of industry.
Those of weavers, smiths, armourers, merchants, hunters, and even the general and the sailor.
The threads extend only to the outlines of each figure, and it follows that every part of the pattern has a rim of minute holes like pierced lines separating postage stamps in a sheet, the effect being that the design seems to hang suspended it1 the groundlinked into it, as the Japanese term implies.i A specimen of this nature recently manufactured by Kawashimas weavers measured 20 ft.
It is not necessary to the promotion of this manufacture that the spinners and weavers should be congregated in large towns, or united in crowded and unwholesome factories.
(d) The later middle ages saw many minor migratory movements, such as those accompanying the crusades, the pushing of German colonization among the Sla y s, and the introduction of Flemish weavers into England.
On the entry of the army into London in 1648, Deane superintended the seizure of treasure at the Guildhall and Weavers' Hall the day after Pride "purged" the House of Commons, and accompanied Cromwell to the consultations as to the "settlement of the Kingdom" with Lenthall and Sir Thomas Widdrington, the keeper of the great seal.
They were weavers who had been associated with Thomas Miinzer, and like him looked forward to a very radical reform of society.
One and all skilful to a surpassing degree - weavers, embroiderers, potters, painters, engravers, carvers, sculptors and jewellers, - they were wearied by drudgery and overpowered by a never-absent, weird and grotesque theology.
Celsus does not indeed repeat the Thyestean charges so frequently brought against Christians by their calumniators, but he says the Christian teachers who are mainly weavers and cobblers have no power over men of education.
He visited all parts of the country himself, and personally encouraged agriculture; he introduced a more economical mode of mining and smelting silver; he favoured the importation of finer breeds of sheep and cattle; and he brought foreign weavers from abroad to teach the Saxons.
Frequently refer to wool, and Flemish weavers settled in the Weald in the time of Edward III.
The manufacturers of Geneva formed in 1487 no fewer than 38 gilds, including tailors, hatters, mercers, weavers, tanners, saddle-makers, furriers, shoe-makers, painters on glass, &c. Goldsmiths are mentioned as early as 1290.
The town council consented to build one new church, attaching to it a parish of 10,000 persons, mostly weavers, labourers and factory workers, and this church was offered to Dr Chalmers that he might have a fair opportunity of testing his system.
They brought with them four Chinese girls, who instructed the court and the people in the art of plain and figured weaving; and to the honour of these pioneer silk weavers a temple was erected in the province of Settsu.
Into England silk manufacture was introduced during the reign of Henry VI.; but the first serious impulse to manufactures of that class was due to the immigration in 1585 of a large body of skilled Flemish weavers who fled from the Low Countries in consequence of the struggle with Spain then devastating their land.
The bulk of the French Protestant weavers settled at Spitalfields, London - an incorporation of silk workers having been there formed in 5629.
In 1370 an insurrection of the weavers was suppressed; but in 1396, the rule of the patricians, having been weakened by internal dissensions, a bloodless revolution led to the establishment of a comparatively democratic constitution, based on the organization of the trade and craft gilds, which lasted with but slight modification till the French Revolution.
Wine and herrings were the chief articles of her commerce; but her weavers had been in repute from time immemorial, and exports of cloth were large, while her goldsmiths and armourers were famous.
Weavers), Bulgars, Concorricii, Albanenses, Albigeois, &c.; in both, Cathars and Manicheans.
Lennep, which was the residence of the counts of Berg from 1226 to 1300, owes the foundation of its prosperity to an influx of Cologne weavers during the 14th century.
Under the East India Company, a commercial resident was stationed at Cuddalore, and the Company's weavers were encouraged by many privileges.
The total number of persons working in textile fabrics in 1901, exclusive of 21,849 drapers, mercers and other dealers, but including 43,040 employed in mixed or unspecified materials (hosiery, lace, carpets, rugs, fancy goods, &c., besides a large number of " undefined " factory hands and weavers), amounted to 174,547 persons.
But now the larger part of the cotton goods used in India is manufactured in mills in that country or in England, and the handloom weavers' output is confined to the coarsest kinds of cloth, or to certain special kinds of goods, such as the turbans and " saris " of Bombay, or the muslins of Arni, Cuddapah, and Madura in Madras, and of Dacca in Bengal.
The extent to which village industries still survive is shown by the fact that according to the census of 1901 there were 5,800,000 handloom weavers in India against only 350,000 workers in cotton mills.
It is calculated that an Indian power-loom weaver working 72 hours a week can turn out 70 lb of cloth, while a European working 54 hours can turn out 468 lb, and that one Lancashire weaver can do the work of six Indian power-loom weavers and nine hand-loom weavers.
The silk weavers of India possess the very highest skill in their craft, and with competent and energetic management and increased capital the industry could be revived and extended.
The chief seat of the woollen industry now is the Punjab, where a considerable number of weavers, thrown out of work by the decline of the shawl industry, have taken to carpet-making.
In later documents mention is made of eighteen gilds of work-people, whose names are nowhere given, but they probably included workers in wood, workers in metal, workers in stone, weavers, leather-workers, potters, ivory-workers, dyers, fisher-folk, butchers, hunters, cooks, barbers, flowersellers, sailors, basket-makers and painters.
Foreign weavers of cloth were established at Wakefield by Henry VII.; and Leland, writing in the time of Henry VIII., states that its "whole profit standeth by coarse drapery."
The process of weaving gunnies for bags and other coarse articles by these hand-loom weavers has been described as follows: "Seven sticks or chattee weaving-posts, called land para or warp, are fixed upon the ground, occupying the length equal to the measure of the piece to be woven, and a sufficient number of twine or thread is wound on them as warp called land.
1454), the county buildings, the free library and the public hall, which succeeded to the corn exchange destroyed by fire in 1898, a loss that involved the museum and its contents, including the banners captured by the Jethart weavers at Bannockburn and Killiecrankie.
In January 1903 an insurrection of peasants armed with scythes took place at Fundao; the imposition of a new market tax provoked riots at Coimbra in March; a serious strike of weavers took place at Oporto in June.
During the weavers' strike the cruiser " Rainha D.
The Indian women are expert weavers, and their handiwork often commands high prices.
Thus the plantation of Flemish weavers in East Anglia, especially at the towns of Worstead (to which is attributed the derivation of the term worsted) and Norwich, dates from the 12th century.
South of the Weavers' quarter of the city (Pillapalaiyam), dates from the time when the Chola power was at its height (12th or 13th century), and is of great importance to the historian by reason of the inscriptions, which contain an almost perfect record of the dynasties who held the country.