Was Cade weathering out the storm?
The indirect geographical elements, which, as a rule, act with and intensify the direct, are mainly climatic; the prevailing winds, rainfall, mean and extreme temperatures of every locality depending on the arrangement of land and sea and of land forms. Climate thus guided affects the weathering of rocks, and so determines the kind and arrangement of soil.
It is covered with a layer of thin, dry soil, through the slow weathering of the coral rocks.
The oldest is the Midway limestone and clays in a narrow strip whose western limit is nearly parallel to the western boundary of the Selma chalk; it includes: the Clayton formation, characterized by the hard blue Turritella limestone (so named from the frequent fossil (Turritella mortoni); and Porters Creek (previously called Flatwoods) clay, which is grey, weathering white, and is occasionally overlain by grey fossiliferous sandstone.
Its intensity seems due, however, in some degree at least, to the weathering of the brown fringes of the feathers which hide the more brilliant hue, and in the Atlantic islands examples are said to retain their gay tints all the year round, while throughout Europe there is scarcely a trace of them visible in autumn and winter; but, beginning to appear in spring, they reach their greatest brilliancy towards midsummer; they are never assumed by examples in confinement.
These are either roasted or exposed to the weathering action of the air.
These " weathering " agents not only act upon stones of buildings, but upon rocks of all kinds, reducing them sooner or later into a more or less fine powder.
If the whole of the soil in the British Islands were swept into the sea and the rocks beneath it laid bare the surface of the country would ultimately become covered again with soil produced from the rocks by the weathering processes just described.
A great proportion of the food constituents which can be extracted by strong hydrochloric acid are not in a condition to be taken up by the roots of plants; they are present, but in a " dormant " state, although by tillage and weathering processes they may in time become " available " to plants.
They are constructed of parallelepipedal blocks of limestone, finely jointed (though the jointing has often been spoilt by weathering), and arranged in regular courses which vary in size in different parts of the enceinte.
This upland is an uplifted peneplain of subaerial denudation,' now so far advanced in a " second " cycle of weathering and so thoroughly dissected that to an untrained eye it appears to be only a country of hills confusedly arranged.
,Among the known fossils are vermes, crustacea and probably brachiopods and pteropods The character of the sediments of the Proterozoic is such as to show that mature weathering affected the older rocks before their material was worked over into the Proterozoic formations.
This mature weathering, resulting in the relatively complete separation of the quartz from the kaolin, and both from the calcium carbonate and other basic materials, implies conditions of rock decay comparable to those of the present time.
Textual criticism is called upon to repair the mischief done to inscriptions (texts inscribed upon stones) by weathering, maltreatment or the errors of the stone-cutter.
Between the "Cotton Belt" and the Tennessee Valley is the mineral region, the "Old Land" area - "a region of resistant rocks" - whose soils, also derived from weathering in situ, are of varied fertility, the best coming from the granites, sandstones and limestones, the poorest from the gneisses, schists and slates.
All streams, from the tiniest rill to the greatest river, are continually engaged in transporting downstream solid particles of rock, the product of weathering agencies in the area which they drain.
Its moraines, though mostly obscured by vegetation and weathering, may still be traced; while on the snowy peaks at the headwaters of the Merced a considerable number of small glaciers, once tributary to the main Yosemite glacier, still exist.
The weathering of this desert area is probably faimly rapid, and the agents at work are principally the rapid heating and cooling of the rocks by day and night, and the erOsive action of sand-laden wind on the softer lnyers; these, aided by the occasional rain, are ceaselessly at work, and produce the successive plateaus, dotted with small isolated hills and cut up by valleys (wadis) which occasionally become deep ravines, thus foiming the principal type of scenery of these deserts.
Owing to the slight rainfall, and the rapid weathering of the rocks by the great range of teniperature, these hills rise steeply from the valleys at their feet as almost bare rock, supporting hardly any vegetation.
Where it is hard and jointed, weathering into large quadrangular blocks, the hills are more especially distinguished for the gnarled bossy character of their declivities, as may be seen in Ben Ledi and the heights to the north-east of it.
The slate hills, weathering more readily, assume gentle slopes and rounded ridges, as in the high land from Holy Loch to the Kyles of Bute.
The upturning of the rocks of the Great Plains at the foot of the Front Range develops an interesting type of topography, the harder layers weathering into grotesquely curious forms, as seen in the famous Garden of the Gods at the foot of Pike's Peak.
The conversion into sulphate is generally effected by the oxidizing processes of weathering, calcination, heating with iron nitrate or ferric sulphate.
Weathering is a very slow, and, therefore, an expensive process; moreover, the entire conversion is only accomplished after a number of years.
The clay resulting from the weathering of the Dartmoor granite has formed marshes and peat bogs, and the desolation of the district has been emphasized by the establishment in its midst of a great convict prison, and in its northern portion of a range for artillery practice.
Quartz being a mineral very resistant to weathering agencies, it forms the bulk of sands and sandstones; and when the sand grains are cemented together by a later deposit of secondary quartz a rock known as quartzite results.