But up till 1860 it was only native-prepared phormium that was known in the market, and it was on the material so carefully, but wastefully, selected that the reputation of the fibre was built up. The troubles with the Maoris at that period led the colonists to engage in the industry, and the sudden demand for all available fibres caused soon afterwards by the Civil War in America greatly stimulated their endeavours.
Second, their heat is applied far more economically, directly to the metal itself, whereas in the crucible process the heat is applied most wastefully to the outside of the non-conducting walls of a closed crucible within which the charge to be heated lies.
Many thousand tons of mussels are wastefully employed as manure by the farmers on lands adjoining scalp-producing coasts, as in Lancashire and Norfolk, three half-pence a bushel being the price quoted in such cases.
Forestry also employs a certain proportion of the population, but the felling of trees is carried on wastefully, though less so than in former years.