This epoch of great deformation and warping marks the transition from the Tertiary to the Quaternary.
The best notion of the process of warping may be gained by sailing up the Trent from the Humber to Gainsborough.
High; the distortion has evidently taken place through the use of unseasoned timber and consequent warping of the woodwork.
It is important that the thermal expansion of the two materials which are thus incorporated should be nearly alike, as otherwise warping of the finished sheet is liable to result.
The chief processes for the improvement of soils which may be discussed here are: liming, claying and marling, warping, paring and burning, and green manuring.
The amount of deposit laid over the land reaches a thickness of two or three feet in one season of warping, which is usually practised between March and October, advantage being taken of the spring tides during these months.
In this way the danger of warping is averted, and exudations from the wooden surface are prevented from reaching the overlaid coats of lacquer.
It was his peculiar virtue that he could quote his opponents without warping their meaning.
America, broadening in the north as if to span the oceans by reaching to its neighbours on the east and west, tapering between vast oceans far to the south where the nearest land is in the little-known Antarctic regions, roughly presents the triangular outline that is to be expected from tetrahedral warping; and although greatly broken in the middle, and standing with the northern and southern parts out of a meridian line, America is nevertheless the best witness among the continents of to-day to the tetrahedral theory.
The basins have been variously ascribed to glacial erosion, to obstruction of normal outlet valleys by barriers of glacial drift, and to crustal warping in connection with or independent of the presence of the glacial sheet.
This was the result of several conditions, among them the recent development, through warping and faulting and volcanic extrusion, of high lands with more or less considerable slopes.
The sites of deposition varied as the period progressed, for the warping and faulting of the surface, the igneous extrusions, and the deposition of sediments obliterated old basins and brought new ones into existence.
The yarn is now ready for reeling into skeins or for warping, both of which operations are common to all the textile yarns.
Between the stern of the "Iphigenia" and the pier, and by dredging along the edge and fixing up warping bollards it was made possible to warp submarines in and out at high water.
Thus western Europe in early Carboniferous time was occupied by a series of constricted, gulf-like seas; and on account of the steady progress of intermittent warping movements of the crust, we find that the areas of clearer water, in which the limestone-building organisms could exist, were repeatedly able to spread, thus forming those thin limestones found interbedded with shale and sandstone which occur typically in the Yoredale district of Yorkshire and in the region to the north, and also in the culm deposits of central Europe.
The methods employed have been three - (i.) the cutting of drainage channels and clearing the marshes by pumping, the method principally employed; (ii.) the system of warping, i.e.
If it is to be used for warping, or in any way for adding to the solid material of the irrigated land, then the nature and amount of the suspended material are necessarily of more importance than the character of the dissolved substances, provided the latter are not positively injurious.
Four ways of irrigating land with water are practised in England: (I) bedwork irrigation, which is the most efficient although it is also the most costly method by which currents of water can be applied to level land; (2) catchwork irrigation, in which the same water is caught and used repeatedly; (3) subterraneous or rather upward irrigation, in which the water in the drains is sent upwards through the soil towards the surface; and (4) warping, in which the water is allowed to stand over a level field until it has deposited the mud suspended in it.
In warping the suspended solid matters are of importance, not merely for any value they may have as manure, but also as a material Warping.
The warping which is practised in England is almost exclusively confined to the overflowing of level ground within tide mark, and is conducted mostly within the districts commanded by estuaries or tidal rivers.
These main conduits, being very costly, are constructed for the warping of large adjoining districts, and openings are made at such points as are then undergoing the operation.
Peat-moss of the most sterile character has been by this process covered with soil of the greatest fertility, and swamps which used to be resorted to for leeches are now, by the effects of warping, converted into firm and fertile fields.
Three years may be said to be spent in the process, one year warping, one year drying and consolidating, and one year growing the first crop, which is generally seed-hoed in by hand, as the mud at this time is too soft to admit of horse labour.
The silt deposited after warping is exceedingly rich and capable of carrying any species of crop. It may be admitted in so small a quantity as only to act as a manure to arable soil, or in such a large quantity as to form a new soil.
This latter acquisition is the principal object of warping, and it excites astonishment to witness how soon a new soil may be formed.
The low lands adjoining the tidal reaches of the Trent and Humber, and part of those around the Wash have been raised above the natural level and enriched by the process of warping, which consists in letting the tide run over the land, and retaining it there a sufficient time to permit the deposit of the sand and mud held in solution by the waters.
A good sandy loam is common in the Heath division; a sandy loam with chalk, or a flinty loam on chalk marl, abounds on portions of the Wolds; an argillaceous sand, merging into rich loam, lies on other portions of the Wolds; a black loam and a rich vegetable mould cover most of the Isle of Axholme on the north-west; a well-reclaimed marine marsh, a rich brown loam, and a stiff cold clay variously occupy the low tracts along the Humber, and between the north Wolds and the sea; a peat earth, a deep sandy loam, and a rich soapy blue clay occupy most of the east and south Fens; and an artificial soil, obtained by "warping," occupies considerable low strips of land along the tidal reaches of the rivers.
(Since late Tertiary times) erosion has had but little effect in altering the country from the state to which it was brought by the uplifting and warping of the old peneplain.
Wooden pulleys are preferably made of maple, the rim being formed of small sections morticed, pinned and glued together, with the grain set in such directions that any warping of the material will leave the cylindrical form practically unaltered.
It is straight in grain but subject to warping, and is not so durable as British oak.
In winter and in floods warping ceases to be beneficial.
The expense of forming canals, embankments and sluices for warping land is from Do to £20 an acre.
Warping is practised only in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire, on the estuary of the Humber, and in the neighbourhood of the rivers which flow into it - the Trent, the Ouse and the Don.