Some of the species of Aviculariidae also appear to be warningly coloured with black or black and red, and their coloration is associated with the urticating nature of their bristles, which makes them highly unpalatable to vertebrate foes.
These experiments have shown that Arthropods also have their likes and dislikes in the matter of insect-food and frequently refuse to eat insects which are warningly coloured and are distasteful to vertebrated enemies.
In East and South Africa there is a genus of Mustelidae known as Ictonyx (Zorilla) which possesses a foetid odour and is warningly coloured with black and white bands after the manner of skunks.
It is possible that this resemblance is mimetic in the Batesian sense of the word, and that the Poecilogale, if inoffensive, profits by its likeness to the highly offensive and warningly coloured Ictonyx.
The drongo is blue and black and is, he believes, warningly coloured.
In tropical America the genus Elaps, which is both poisonous and warningly coloured, is a model for several innocuous snakes.
Finally the larva of one of the Bornean Mantidae, which is a floral simulator in its pupal and adult stages, closely resembles in its black and red coloration the larva of the stinking and warningly coloured bug Eulyes amoena.
This may, however, be an instance of Miillerian rather than of Batesian mimicry, the beetle being itself inedible; for Shelford has stated his conviction that the Bornean representatives of the sub-family (Clytinae), to which Clytus arietis belongs, are all highly distasteful and are warningly coloured, as are members of this sub-family from other parts of the world.
Neither of the above-mentioned animals is mimicked; but where two or more noxious animals, inhabiting the same district, resemble each other, both being aposematically or warningly coloured, the likeness is said to be " synaposematic."
Finally, the likeness of an edible species to a warningly coloured inedible one in the same locality is termed " pseudaposematic," in allusion to the pretentiousness or falsity of the warning signal.