The danger of loss from forest fires, such as that of 1894, emphasized the necessity of forest preservation, and resulted (1895) in the creation of a special state department with a forest commissioner and five wardens with power to enforce upon corporations and individuals a strict observance of the forestry laws, the good effects of the law being evidenced by the fact that the fire losses in forest lands for the first twelve years of its operation averaged only $31,000 a year.
The board consists of representatives of the various parishes, called "way wardens" together with the justices for the county residing within the district.
In 1388 parliament ordered that every sheriff in England should call upon the masters and wardens of all gilds and brotherhoods to send to the king's council in Chancery, before the 2nd of February 1389, full returns regarding their foundation, ordinances and property.
The ordinances were enforced by an alderman with the assistance of two or more deputies, or by one or two masters, wardens or keepers.
Officers, commonly called wardens in England, were elected by the members, and their chief function was to supervise the quality of the wares produced, so as to secure good and honest workmanship. Therefore, ordinances were made regulating the hours of labour and the terms of admission to the gild, including apprenticeship. Other ordinances required members to make periodical payments to a common fund, and to participate in certain common religious observances, festivities and pageants.
The pier was enlarged and pier-wardens appointed to collect the droits.
In September 1908, after an investigation which showed that many wardens had been in the pay of convict lessees and that terrible cruelty had been practised in convict camps, an extra session of the legislature practically put an end to the convict lease or contract system; the act then passed provided that after the 31st of March 1909, the date of expiration of leases in force, no convicts may be leased for more than twelve months and none may be leased at all unless there are enough convicts to supply all demands for convict labour on roads made by counties, each county to receive its pro rata share on a population basis, and to satisfy all demands made by municipalities which thus secure labour for $100 per annum (per man) paid into the state treasury, and all demands made by the state prison farm and factory established by this law.
For each county four wardens of the peace were to be appointed, while the sheriffs were to hold their tourns twice a year and were not to oppress the people by their exactions.
By a series of statutes signed in 1626, a few days before his death, Alleyn ordained that his school should be for the instruction of 80 boys consisting of three distinct classes: - (I) the twelve poor scholars; (2) children of inhabitants of Dulwich, who were to be taught freely; and (3) " towee or foreign schollers," who were " to pay such allowance as the master and wardens shall appoint."
Bestowed it on Richard de Redvers, in whose family it continued until Isabella de Fortibus sold it to Edward I., after which the government was entrusted to wardens as representatives of the crown.
They elect after dinner two persons of the company so assembled - Roger Osekyn and Lawrence de Haliwell - as their first governors or wardens, appointing, at the same time, in conformity with the pious custom of the age, a priest or chaplain to celebrate divine offices for their souls" (Heath's "Account of the Grocers' Company," quoted in Herbert's Twelve Great Livery Companies, 1836, i.
The wardens of the grocers are to "assayen weights, powders, confeccions, platers, oyntments and all other things belonging to the same crafte."
Perjury is to be punished by the wardens and society with such correction as that other men of the fellowship may be warned thereby.
Brentano refers to a pamphlet on the Clothworkers' Company, published in 1649, which asserts that "the commonalty" in the old charters meant, not the whole gild, but only the masters, wardens and assistants.
The company, or rather, the wardens, the assistants and livery presented a petition to the lord mayor, which was answered by the discontented craftsmen.
(1467) appointed the election of mayor, sheriffs, &c., to be in the common council, together with the masters and wardens of the companies.
Masters and wardens were ordered to associate with themselves the honest men of their mysteries, and come in their best liveries to the elections; that is to say, the franchise was restricted to the "liverymen" of the companies.
The Skinners have the Tonbridge Grammar School; the Mercers, St Paul's School; the Merchant Taylors, the school bearing their name, &c. The constitution of the livery companies usually embraces (a) the court, which includes the master and wardens, and is the executive and administrative body; (2) the livery or middle class, being the body from which the court is recruited; and (3) the general body of freemen, from which the livery is recruited.
The foundation was on the model of Merton and Queen's colleges at Oxford, to which grammar schools were attached by their founders, while fellows of Merton were the first wardens of both of Wykeham's colleges.
The freemen, now appearing as the ratepayers, elected the "parish officers," as the churchwardens and way-wardens, the assessors, the overseers, and (if required) paid assistantoverseers, a secretary or vestry-clerk, and a collector of rates if the guardians applied for his appointment.
In 1711 the blanket-makers obtained a charter making them into a company, consisting of a master, assistants, two wardens and a commonalty.
With the aid of the Spanish Moslem Beni-Casi the Basques drove off the counts and wardens of the marches of the Carolingians.
Here, mainly under, the leadership of Louis the Pious, they formed ~the Marca Hispanica, where Frankish counts and wardens of the marches gradually gained ground.
The wardens usually conferred once a year on matters of common interest, and as a rule their meetings were conducted in a friendly spirit, though in 1575 a display of temper led to the affair of the Raid of Reidswire.