Its early - Protestant sympathies placed it on the side of Sweden during the Thirty Years' War, and in 1628 it successfully resisted a siege of eleven weeks by Wallenstein, who had sworn to take it "though it were chained to heaven."
Reishaus, Wallenstein and die Belagerung Stralsunds (Stralsund, 1887).
The dismissal of Wallenstein, which is often attributed to the work of Father Joseph, Richelieu's envoy to the diet of Regensburg in July and August of 1630, was due rather to the fears of the electors themselves, but it was of double value to Richelieu when his Swedish ally marched south.
Reichenberg is first mentioned in a document of 1348, and from 1622 to 1634 was among the possessions of the great Wallenstein, since whose death it has belonged to the Gallas and Clam Gallas families, though their jurisdiction over the town has long ceased.
Wallenstein made ready to give battle on the following day and recalled Pappenheim.
Wallenstein advanced in his turn, recaptured his guns and drove the Swedes over the road.
Wallenstein thus gained time to reestablish his order, and once more the now exhausted brigades of the Swedish first line were driven over the road.
In the Thirty Years' War it was successively taken by Gustavus Adolphus (1631), by Wallenstein (1633), by the elector of Brandenburg (1634), and again by the Swedes, who held it from 1640 to 1644.
Wallenstein entered Saxony in 1632, and his lieutenants plundered, burned and murdered through the length and breadth of the land.
The parish church was begun by Wallenstein after the model of the pilgrims' church of Santiago de Compostela in Spain, but not completed till 1655.
The castle, which stands next to the church, was built by Wallenstein and finished in 1630.
Wallenstein was interred at the neighbouring Carthusian monastery, but in 1639 the head and right hand were taken by General Baner to Sweden, and in 1702 the other remains were removed by Count Vincent of Waldstein to his hereditary burying ground at Miinchengratz.
The place belonged to various noble Bohemian families, and in the 17th century came into the hands of Wallenstein, who made it the capital of the duchy of Friedland and did much to improve and extend it.
Teplitz figures in the history of Wallenstein, and is also interesting as the spot where the monarchs of Austria, Russia and Prussia first signed the triple alliance against Napoleon in 1813.
He drew the horoscopes of the emperor and Wallenstein, as well as of a host of lesser magnates; but, though keenly alive to the unworthy character of such a trade, he made necessity his excuse for a compromise with superstition.
The emperor Ferdinand II., too happy to transfer the burden, countenanced an arrangement by which Kepler entered the service of the duke of Friedland (Wallenstein), who assumed the full responsibility of the debt.
In the banquet-room of this castle Wallenstein's officers Terzky, Kinsky, Illo and Neumann were assassinated a few hours before Wallenstein himself was murdered by Captain Devereux.
The rooms occupied by Wallenstein have been transformed since 1872 into a museum, which contains many historical relics and antiquities of the town of Eger.
He had at his disposal from 19,000 to 25,000 men, and at first gained some successes; but on the 27th of August 1626 he was utterly routed by Tilly at Lutter-am-Barenberge, and in the summer of 1627 both Tilly and Wallenstein, ravaging and burning, occupied the duchies and the whole peninsula of Jutland.
In his extremity Christian now formed an alliance with Sweden (1st of January 1628), whereby Gustavus Adolphus pledged himself to assist Denmark with a fleet in case of need, and shortly afterwards a Swedo-Danish army and fleet compelled Wallenstein to raise the siege of Stralsund.
Marching into Bohemia the Saxons occupied Prague, but John George soon began to negotiate for peace and consequently his soldiers offered little resistance to Wallenstein, who drove them back into Saxony.
Sickingen, who has been compared to Wallenstein, and who doubtless hoped to secure a great position for himself, had already collected a large army, which by its very presence had contributed somewhat to the election of Charles at Frankfort in 1519.
After Wallenstein had beaten Mansfeld at the bridge of Dessau in April 1626, and Tilly had defeated Christian of Denmark at Lutter in the succeeding August, the two generals united their forces.
A little later, yielding to Maximilian and his colleagues in the League, Ferdinand dismissed Wallenstein, whose movements had aroused their resentment, from his service.
Before these events Ferdinand had realized how serious had been his mistake in dismissing Wallenstein, and after some delay his agents persuaded the great general to emerge from his retirement.
The conditions, however, upon which Wallenstein consented to come to the emperors aid were remarkably onerous, but Ferdinand had perforce to assent to them.
Gustavus made an attempt to storm these fortifications, but he failed to make any impression on them; he failed also in inducing Wallenstein to accept battle, and he was forced to abandon Nuremberg and to march to the protection of Saxony.
Wallenstein followed, and the two armies faced each other at LUtzen on the 16th ofNovember 1632.
Meanwhile Wallenstein was again arousing the suspicions of his nominal allies.
In January 1634 he declared Wallenstein deposed from his command, hut he was still at the head of an army when he was murdered in the following month at Eger.
The fortunes of Austria never seemed brighter than in 1628 when Wallenstein began the siege of Stralsund.
In 1632 Gustavus Adolphus was killed, in 1634 Wallenstein was assassinated, and in 1635 France entered into the war.
And seine Zeit (1862-1868), and a criticism of Wallenstein, LValdstein wkhrend seines ersten Generalats (1886).
It successfully resisted Wallenstein for seven months in 1629, but was stormed and sacked by Tilly in May 1631.
The plan of Wallenstein was of long standing, and it was only towards the end, when Schiller realized the impossibility of saying all he had to say within five acts, that he decided to divide it into three parts, a descriptive prologue, Wallensteins Lager, and the two dramas Die Piccolomini and Wallensteins Tod.
Without entirel y break ing with the pseudo-classic method he had adopted in Don Carlos - the two lovers, Max Piccolomini and Thekla, are an obvious concession to the tradition of the French theatre - Wallenstein shows how much Schiller's art had benefited by his study of Greek tragedy; the fatalism of his hero is a masterly application of an antique motive to a modern theme.
The success of Wallenstein, with which Schiller passed at once into the front rank of European dramatists, was so encouraging that the poet resolved to devote himself with redoubled ardour to dramatic poetry.
Wallenstein was followed in 1800 by Maria Stuart, a tragedy, which, in spite of its great popularity in and outside of Germany, was felt by the critics to follow too closely the methods of the lachrymose "tragedy of common life" to maintain a high position among Schiller's works.
In the poet's last completed drama, Wilhelm Tell (1804), he once more, as in Wallenstein, chose a historical subject involving wide issues.
Werder, Vorlesungen fiber Schillers Wallenstein (1889); A.
Bratranek, Goethes Egmont and Schillers Wallenstein (1862); C. Schuchardt, Goethes italienische Reise (1862); H.
In Dux is a castle belonging to Count Waldstein, a kinsman of Wallenstein, which contains a picture gallery with two portraits of Wallenstein by Van Dyck, and a museum with a collection of arms and armour and several relics of the great general.
Wallenstein made it his winter-quarters in 1633, and it was in the great hall of the Rathaus that his generals took the oath of fidelity to him (January 1634).
It suffered greatly during the Hussite war, and still more during the Thirty Years' War, in the course of which it was besieged and captured by the elector of Brandenburg, John George (1620), fell into the hands of Wallenstein (1633), and, in the following year was burned by its commander before being surrendered to the elector of Saxony.
During his stay of nine months in Germany, he made himself master of the language to such purpose that the translation of Wallenstein - his first piece of literary work after his return to England - was actually accomplished in six weeks.
In 1631 Prague was occupied for a short time by the Saxon allies of Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, but the Imperial army led by Wallenstein soon obliged them to retire.
In 1628 it was occupied by the imperial troops, and Wallenstein resided in it during part of the years 1628 and 1629.
He united Sweden, now reconciled with Poland, and the Catholic and Protestant electors, disquieted by the edict of Restitution and the omnipotence of Wallenstein; and he aroused the United Provinces.
Moreover, Wallenstein, who had been urged by Richelieu to set up an independent kingdom in Bohemia, had been killed on the 23rd of February 1634.
Napoleon, as well as Wallenstein, believed in his star.
Forster's principal works are: Beitrage zur neueren Kriegsgeschichte (Berlin, 1816); Grundziige der Geschichte des preussischen Staates (Berlin, 1818); Der Feldmarschall Blucher and seine Umgebungen (Leipzig, 1820); Friedrich der Grosse, Jugendjahre, Bildung and Geist (Berlin, 1822); Albrecht von Wallenstein (Potsdam, 1834); Friedrich Wilhelm I., Konig von Preussen (Potsdam, 1834-1835); Die Hofe and Kabinette Europas im 18.
Kuhnemann, Kants and Schillers Begriindung der Aesthetik (1895) and Die Kantischen Studien Schillers and die Komposition des Wallenstein (1889); H.
But the dismissal of Wallenstein and the declaration in Gustavus's favour of Magdeburg, the greatest city in the Lower Saxon Circle, and strategically the strongest fortress of North Germany, encouraged him to advance boldly.
The same week Wallenstein chased John George from Prague and manoeuvred the Saxons out of Bohemia.
If Tilly had made John George such an offer as Wallenstein was now empowered to make, the elector would never have become Gustavus's ally; would he remain Gustavus's ally now?
Hastily quitting his quarters in Upper Swabia, Gustavus hastened towards Nuremberg on his way to Saxony, but finding that Wallenstein and Maximilian of Bavaria had united their forces, he abandoned the attempt to reach Saxony, and both armies confronted each other at Nuremberg which furnished Gustavus with a point of support of the first order.
He quickly converted the town into an entrenched and fortified camp. Wallenstein followed the king's example, and entrenched himself on the western bank of the Regnitz in a camp twelve English miles in circumference.
Towards the end of October, Wallenstein, after devastating Saxony, was preparing to go into winter quarters at Liitzen, when the king surprised him as he was crossing the Rippach (1st of November) and a rearguard action favourable to the Swedes ensued.
During the night, however, Wallenstein re-collected his host for a decisive action, and at daybreak on the 6th of November, while an autumn mist still lay over the field, the battle began.
It was obviously Gustavus's plan to drive Wallenstein away from the Leipzig road, north of which he had posted himself, and thus, in case of success, to isolate, and subsequently, with the aid of the Saxons in the Elbe fortresses, annihilate him.