On the other hand there were movements, such as the Waldensian, the Wycliffite and Hussite,which are often described as "reformations anticipating the Reformation" which "set out from the Augustinian conception of the Church, but took exception to the development of the conception," and were pronounced by the medieval church as heretical for (1) "contesting the hierarchical gradation of the priestly order; or (2) giving to the religious idea of the Church implied in the thought of predestination a place superior to the conception of the empirical Church; or (3) applying to the priests, and thereby to the authorities of the Church, the test of the law of God, before admitting their right to exercise, as holding the keys, the power of binding and loosing" (Harnack's History of Dogma, vi.
The French king treated Victor Amadeus almost as a vassal, and obliged him to persecute his Protestant (Waldensian) subjects.
In 1685 Victor was forced by Louis to persecute his Waldensian subjects, because they had given shelter to the French Huguenot refugees after the revocation of the edict of Nantes.
With the unwelcome help of a French army under Marshal Catinat, he invaded the Waldensian valleys, and after a difficult campaign, characterized by great cruelty, he subjugated them.
The Waldensian valleys lie to the south-west of Turin, in the direction of Monte Viso, but include no high or snowy mountains, while the glens themselves are (with one or two exceptions) fertile and well wooded.
Just to its south-west there opens the chief Waldensian valley, the Val Pellice, watered by the stream of that name, but sometimes called inaccurately the Luserna valley, Luserna being simply _a village opposite the capital, Torre Pellice; near Torre Pellice the side glens of Angrogna and Rora join the Pellice valley.
To the north-west of Pinerolo, up the Chisone valley, there opens at Perosa Argentina the valley of St Martin, another important Waldensian valley, which is watered by the Germanasca torrent, and at Perrero splits into two branches, of which the Prali glen is far more fertile than that of Massello, the latter being the wildest and most savage of all the Waldensian valleys.
They rested upon the supposed antiquity of a body of Waldensian literature, which modern criticism has shown to have been tampered with.
The earliest definite account given of the Waldensian opinion is that of the inquisitor Sacconi about 1250.1 He divides them into two classes: those north of the Alps and those of Lombardy.
The last step in the development of the Waldensian body was taken in 1530, when two deputies of the Vaudois in Dauphine and Provence, Georges Morel and Pierre Masson, were sent to confer with the German and Swiss Reformers.
The total population of the Waldensian valleys (for they also contain Roman Catholics in no small number) amounts to about 20,000 all told.
Communicants) of the Waldensian faith amounted to 12,695.
The literature on the subject of the Waldensian and other sects is copious.
Amongst books dealing with the more modern history of the Vaudois specially are Leger, Histoire des eglises vaudoises; Arnaud, Histoire de la rentree des Vaudois; Perrin, Histoire des Vaudois; Monastier, Histoire de l'eglise vaudoise; Muston, L' Israel des Alpes; Gilly, Excursion to the Valleys of Piedmont, and Researches on the Waldensians; Todd, The Waldensian Manuscripts; Melia, Origin, Persecution and Doctrines of the Waldensians; Jules Chevalier, Memoires sur les heresies en Dauphine avant le X VP siecle, accompannes de documents inedits sur les sorciers et les Vaudois (Valence, 1890); J.
Roughly speaking, in each of these five lands the Alpine population speaks the tongue of the country, though in Italy there are a few French-speaking districts (the Waldensian valleys as well as the Aosta and Oulx valleys) as well as some German-speaking and Ladin-speaking settlements.
He afterwards spent a year in Geneva, and was powerfully influenced by the strict moral life and rigid ecclesiastical discipline prevalent there, and also by the preaching and the piety of the Waldensian professor, Antoine Leger, and the converted Jesuit preacher, Jean de Labadie.