True coniferous trees (Walchia) do appear at the top of the coal measures.
The most important are the upper Coal Measure or Permian genera Walchia, Ullmannia and Pagiophyllum, all of which resembled certain Araucarieae in habit.
In the case of Walchia there is some evidence as to the fructifications, which in one species (W.
The Permian, so far at least as its lower beds are concerned, shows little change from the Stephanian; Conifers of the Walchia type are especially characteristic. The remarkable Permo-Carboniferous flora of India and the southern hemisphere is described in the next section of this article.