Rienzi's life and fate have formed the subject of a famous novel by Bulwer Lytton, of an opera by Wagner and of a tragedy by Julius Mosen.
The story was followed closely in its main outlines by Richard Wagner in his opera Lohengrin.
Wagner, Leipzig, 1900).
Wagner (Leipzig, 1900).
Among modern editions of separate plays with commentaries the following are probably the most useful: Amphitruo by Palmer, 1890,1890, and Havet, 1895; Asinaria by Gray, 1894; Aulularia by Wagner, 1866 and 1876; Captivi by Brix, 6th ed., revised by Niemeyer, 1910; an English edition of this work by Sonnenschein (with introduction on prosody), 1880; same play by Lindsay (with metrical introduction), 1900; Epidicus by Gray, 1893; Menaechmi by Brix, 4th ed., revised by Niemeyer, 1891; Miles gloriosus by Lorenz, 2nd ed., 1886; by Brix, 3rd ed., revised by Niemeyer, 1901; by Tyrrell, 3rd ed., 1894; Mostellaria by Lorenz, 2nd ed., 1883; by Sonnenschein, 2nd ed., 1907; Pseudolus by Lorenz, 1876; Rudens by Sonnenschein, 1891, editio minor (with a metrical appendix), 1901; Trinummus (with a metrical introduction) by Brix, 5th ed., revised by Niemeyer, 1907; by Gray, 1897; Truculentus by Spengel and Studemund, 1898.
Wagner, Ber., 1888, 21, p. 1231), or by the action of nitrous acid on the diamines.
And, moreover, those composers who have done most to realize this new nature (as Wagner has done for the brass instruments) have also retained, to an extent unsuspected by their imitators, the definite character which the instrument had in its earlier form.
On the operatic scale established by Wagner such detail is simply lost.
But the greatness of Wagner is shown in the fact that with all the effect his additions have in revolutionizing the resources of orchestration, he never regards his novelties as substitutes for the natural principles of instrumental effect.
Least of all can it conduce to the formation of sound critical standards for the new instrumentation which is now in process of development for the future forms of instrumental music. These, we cannot doubt, will be as profoundly influenced by Wagner as the sonata style was influenced by Gluck.
Yet, in the preface to the score Wagner speaks very strongly of the loss of the original character of the horn in the hands of ordinary players; and goes so far as to say that, if experience had not shown that they could be trained to play nearly as smoothly as the classical players, he would have renounced all the advantages of the new mechanism.) 3 trumpets.
In Der Ring des Nibelungen Wagner specifies the proportions of the string-band as 16 first and 16 second violins, 12 violas, 12 violoncellos, 8 double basses.
(A project of Wagner's which instrumentmakers found impracticable, so that Wagner had to content himself with a kind of valve trombone shaped like a trumpet.) 3 trombones and i double-bass trombone.
Wagner, " Recherches sur l'organisation de Monobrachium parasiticum Merejk," Arch.
In estimating the influence of recent writers on geography it is usual tc assign to Oscar Peschel (1826-1875) the credit of having corrected the preponderance which Ritter gave to the historical element, and of restoring physical geography to its old pre-eminence.2 As a matter of fact, each of the leading modern exponents of theoretical geography - such as Ferdinand von Richthofen, Hermann Wagner, Friedrich Ratzel, William M.
An elaborate criticism of all the existing data regarding the volume relations of the vertical relief of the globe was made in 1894 by Professor Hermann Wagner, whose recalculations of volumes 4 " On the Height of the Land and the Depth of the Ocean," Scot.
Wagner, and subsequently by Penck and Heiderich, and for the oceans by Karstens.
By the device of a hypsographic curve co-ordinating the vertical relief and the areas of the earth's surface occupied by each zone of elevation, according to the system introduced by Supan, 2 Wagner showed his results graphically.
Wagner subdivides the earth's surface, according to elevation, into the following five regions: Wagner's Divisions of the Earth's Crust.
Wagner,' his metric measurements being transposed into British units: Comparison of the Continents.
This extremely elaborate subdivision may be reduced, as Wagner points out, to three types-the continental coast where the sea comes up to the solid rock-material of the land; the marine coast, which is formed entirely of soft material sorted out by the sea; and the composite coast, in which both forms are combined.
7 Wagner, Lehrbuch der Geographie (1900), i.
Wagner, Lehrbuch der Geographie, p. 658.
He first devoted his attention to painting, but afterwards took up the serious study of music. He entered the Paris Conservatoire, but did not remain there long, because he had espoused too warmly the cause of Wagner against his professor.
Joncieres' admiration for Wagner asserted itself rather in a musical than a dramatic sense.
See Wagner and Grobe, Chronik der Stadt Saalfeld (Saalfeld, 1865-1867), and Thiimmel, Kriegstage aus Saalfelds Vergangenheit (Berlin, 1882).
The writer of this article is much indebted to the works of Schmoller, particularly his Grundris der allgemeinen Volkswirtschaftslehre (1900), and Adolph Wagner, particularly his Grundlegung der politischen Okonomie.
Wagner made his classical observations on the production of larvae from unfertilized eggs developed in the precociouslyformed ovaries of a larval gall-midge (Cecidomyid), and subsequent observers have confirmed his results by studies on insects of the same family and of the related Chironomidae.
Most of them are but luxuries, and there is some degree of truth in the remark of Andreas Wagner in his Report on the Progress of Zoology for 1843, drawn up for the Ray Society (p. 60), that they " are not adapted for the extension and promotion of science, but must inevitably, on account of their unnecessary costliness, constantly tend to reduce the number of naturalists who are able to avail themselves of them, and they thus enrich ornithology only to its ultimate injury."
Upon these descriptions he was still engaged till death, in 1837, put an end to his labours, when his place as Naumann's assistant for the remainder of the work was taken by Rudolph Wagner; but, from time to time, a few more, which he had already completed, made their posthumous appearance in it, and, in subsequent years, some selections from his unpublished papers were through the care of Giebel presented to the public. Throughout the whole of this series the same marvellous industry and scrupulous accuracy are manifested, and attentive study of it will show how many times Nitzsch anticipated the conclusions of modern taxonomers.
6 Andreas Wagner, in his report on the progress of 2 A short essay by Nitzsch on the general structure of the Passerines, written, it is said, in 1836, was published in 1862 (Zeitschr.
Clamatores, being a majority of that division of the Picariae of Nitzsch, so called by Andreas Wagner, in 1841, 1 which have their feet normally constructed; 3.
Strisores, a group now separated from the Clamatores of Wagner, and containing those forms which have their feet abnormally constructed; and 4.
Andreas Wagner had sent to the Academy of Sciences of Munich (Sitzungsberichte, pp. 146-154; Ann.
Wagner foresaw the use that would be made of this discovery by the adherents of the new philosophy, and, in the usual language of its opponents at the time, strove to ward off the " misinterpretations " that they would put upon it.
WILHELM RICHARD WAGNER (1813-1883), German dramatic composer, poet and essay-writer, was born at Leipzig on the 22nd of May 1813.
In that year Wagner married Wilhelmina Planer, an actress at the theatre at Konigsberg.
Wagner failed to gain a footing, and Rienzi, destined for the Grand Opera, was rejected.
But though in Rienzi Wagner had shown energy and ambition, that work was far from representing his preconceived ideal.
On the 2nd of February 1843 Wagner was formally installed as Hofkapellmeister at the Dresden theatre, and he soon set to work on a new opera.
This last-named legend introduces the incidental poem of " Loherangrin," and so led Wagner to the study of Wolfram von Eschenbach's Parzival and Titurel, with great results later on.
But for the present he confined himself to the subject in hand; and on the 19th of October 1845 he produced his Tannhauser, with Schroeder Devrient, Johanna Wagner,' Tichatschek and Mitterwurzer in the principal parts.
But Wagner boldly fought for them, and might have prevailed earlier had he not taken part in the political agitations of 1849, after which his position in Dresden became untenable.
Wagner fled to Paris and thence to Zurich, where he lived in almost unbroken retirement until the autumn of 1859.
The medieval studies which Wagner had begun for his work at the libretto of Tannhauser bore rich fruit in his next opera Lohengrin, in which he also developed his principles on a larger scale and with a riper technique than hitherto.
It was a severe trial to Wagner not to hear his own work, but he knew that it was in good hands, and he responded to Liszt's appeal for a new creation by studying the Nibelungenlied and gradually shaping it into a gigantic tetralogy.
During his exile Wagner matured his plans and perfected his musical style; but it was not until some considerable time after his return that any of the works he then meditated were placed upon the stage.
But the music was delayed until the strange incident of a message from the emperor of Brazil encouraged Wagner to complete it in 18J9.
In that year Wagner visited Paris for the third time; and after much negotiation, in which he was nobly supported by the Prince and Princess Metternich, Tannhduser was accepted at the Grand Opera.