The award of the court is thus the equivalent of the determination of a special board in Victoria, and deals with the same questions, the most important of which are the minimum rates of wages and the number of working hours per week.
The cost of their imported food doubles, and I guarantee you the foreign-owned factory won't double wages as a result.
This measure, together with several subsequent amending acts, of which the most important became law in 1903, 1905 and 1907, forms a complete industrial code in which the principle of state regulation of wages is recognized and established.
The phenomenon of emigration in Sicily cannot altogether be explained by low wages, which have risen, though prices have done the same.
If the tiller receives as much as 45 lire per month, supplemented by other wages in kind, it is said to be boaria a salario; if the principal part of his remuneration is in kind, his contract is called boaria a spesa.
In Emilia the day laborers, known as disobbligati, earn, on the contrary, low wages, out of which they have to provide for shelter and to lay by something against unemployment.
The cura tori or curatoli (factors) receive 40 a year, with a slight interest in the profits; the stockmen hardly earn in money and kind 13; the muleteers and underworkmen get between 5 to 8, plus firewood, bread and oil; irregular workmen have even lower wages, with a daily distribution of bread, salt and oil.
The low level of wages in many trades and the jealousies of the Chambers of Labor and other working-class organizations impede rapid development.
It is needless to add that the wages divided by the artels are higher than those earned by isolated workmen.
Hence, although wages are painfully low, the cost of production to the manufacturer is relatively high; and it is still further increased by the cost of the raw materials, by the heavy rates of transport owing to the distance from the sea, by the dearness of capital and by the scarcity of fuel.
Meantime, the purchasing power of the dollar which the railway company receives for a specified service is gradually growing smaller, owing to the general increases year by year in wages and in the cost of material.
The maintenance of the requisite plant and the high wages current render such repairs somewhat costly.
The diminution of the population by one-half led to a scarcity of labour and an increase of wages which deprived the landowner of his narrow margin of profit.
(5) That the magistrates used their powers sometimes to raise wages, sometimes to force them down.
(6) That the local variations of wages and prices were what we should call excessive, so that the standard of comfort in one district was very different from that of others.
(7) That the wages assessments group themselves round certain short periods, coincident in many instances with high prices, increase of poverty, and other causes of exceptional action.
But these conclusions, after all, suggest more difficulties than they remove, for they show that our inquiry, instead of presenting certain well-marked features which can be readily dealt with, has to be split up into a number of highly specialized studies: the investigation of rates of wages, prices and the standard of comfort in different localities, bye-industries, regularity of employment, the organization of particular trades, the economic functions of local authorities, apprenticeship and a host of other subjects.
Suppose we have selected one of the numerous subsidiary problems suggested by the general inquiry, and obtained such full and complete information about one particular industry that we of a can tabulate the wages of the workers for a long series of years.
In 1873 there was an important rise in wages, in the following year there was a further advance, and another in 1876; but in 1877 wages fell back a little, though not below the rate of 1874.
In 1890 matters were on the eve of a great change and wages fell, in most cases to a point 20% below the rates of 1885.
Taking everything into consideration the reduction was, perhaps, not less than 20 Lo, so that, though the nominal or money wages in 1873 and 1890 were the same, the actual wages were much higher in the latter year.
The strong downward tendency of prices made a reduction of wages imperative; but the labouring classes failed to recognize any such necessity, and strongly resented any reductions proposed by employers.
Nor were other labourers, more nearly connected with the producing interests, satisfied with a reduction of wages because produce had fallen in price all round.
In New South Wales, whose example was followed by Western Australia, the machinery adopted for fixing the statutory rate of wages was of a somewhat different type.
In order to provide a similar protection for the artisans employed in the protected industries, an excise duty was imposed on the home-produced articles, which was to be remitted in favour of manufacturers who could show that they paid " fair and reasonable " wages, and complied with certain other conditions for the benefit of their workmen.
He had a right to their labour in return for their keep. He might hire them out and receive their wages, pledge them for debt, even sell them outright.
The Belgian state telegraphs were started in 1850 and were at first very profitable, but for the years 1866-9 they yielded an average profit of only 2.8 per cent., and subsequently failed to earn operating expenses, the reasons for the steady decline of the profits being the opening of relatively unprofitable lines and offices, increases in wages, and a diminution in growth of the foreign and transit messages which had constituted the most profitable part of the whole business.
Emigration has, however, recently assumed such proportions as to lead to scarcity of labor and rise of wages in Italy itself.
In the former case a peasant family undertakes all the necessary work in return for payment in money or kind, which varies according to the crop; in the latter the money wages and the payment in kind are fixed beforehand.
The wages are lower than under the boaria.
Wages are higher, the cost of the prime necessaries of life is, as a rule, lower, though taxation on some of them is still enormous; so that the remuneration of work has improved.
We shall best illustrate the character and method of economic reasoning by examples, and for that purpose let us take first of An all a purely historical problem, namely, the effect on of the wage-earners of the wages clauses of the Statute of Apprenticeship (1563).
The justices were authorized to fix wages at the Easter quarter sessions.
To answer this question we must collect the wages assessments sanctioned by the magistrates.
If all the industries belong to one economic area over which, so far as we can tell from general statistics of wages and prices, and other information, fairly homogeneous conditions prevailed, we may be able to reach some useful conclusions as to the operation of the act.
We cannot assume that the fluctuations in wages were due to the action or inaction of magistrates without the most careful examination of the other influences affecting the trades.
We cannot suppose that the policy of the Merchant Adventurers' Company had nothing to do with the woollen industry; that the export trade in woollen cloth was quite independent of the foreign exchanges and international trade relations in those times; that the effect on wages of the state of the currency, the influx of new silver, the character of the harvests, and many other influences can be conveniently ignored.
It may, however, be noticed that the period 1850-1903 was marked by a steady increase of the cash wages of the farm labourer, as indicated in the following table from the Report on the Earnings of Agricultural Labourers issued by the Board of Trade in 1905.
Average Weekly Cash Wages of ordinary Agricultural Labourers employed on certain Farms in England and Wales.
To meet this situation, the Statute of Labourers 1351) enacted that no man should refuse to work at the same rate of wages as prevailed before the plague.
Wages, diminished rents and bad farming.
Land for farming purposes is expensive, and wages are high, leaving small profit, unless it happens that a man, with his family to assist him, works his own land.