Wages fell precipitately, as also did rents.
In 1882 there was a very important advance in wages; carpenters received 11s.
The wages weren't all that great, but deducting rent, utilities and groceries from her present salary, it wound up being a good deal more.
Another disturbing influence has been the high protective tariffs, adopted during the closing years of the century, which increased the costs of living more rapidly than the wages for labour, and compelled thousands of immigrants to seek employment elsewhere.
I remember when wages were sixty cents a day for laborers on this very road.
At the same time wages remained low.
Wages have risen from 22~6 centimes per hour (on an average) to 26.3 centimes, but not in all industries.
_Dearest Carl; You are a good boy to send me all your wages, for now I can pay the rent and buy some warm clothing for your little sister.
The yard full of cattle, the women at home, two brothers away earning wages, and only Michael the youngest, at home.
Wages, diminished rents and bad farming.
The award of the court is thus the equivalent of the determination of a special board in Victoria, and deals with the same questions, the most important of which are the minimum rates of wages and the number of working hours per week.
The cost of their imported food doubles, and I guarantee you the foreign-owned factory won't double wages as a result.
I don't know what kind of wages you draw here, but I'd be willing to pay you a hundred a week plus room and board.
Hence, although wages are painfully low, the cost of production to the manufacturer is relatively high; and it is still further increased by the cost of the raw materials, by the heavy rates of transport owing to the distance from the sea, by the dearness of capital and by the scarcity of fuel.
To answer this question we must collect the wages assessments sanctioned by the magistrates.
If the tiller receives as much as 45 lire per month, supplemented by other wages in kind, it is said to be boaria a salario; if the principal part of his remuneration is in kind, his contract is called boaria a spesa.
The low level of wages in many trades and the jealousies of the Chambers of Labor and other working-class organizations impede rapid development.
The diminution of the population by one-half led to a scarcity of labour and an increase of wages which deprived the landowner of his narrow margin of profit.
It may, however, be noticed that the period 1850-1903 was marked by a steady increase of the cash wages of the farm labourer, as indicated in the following table from the Report on the Earnings of Agricultural Labourers issued by the Board of Trade in 1905.
I had learned a new lesson--that nature "wages open war against her children, and under softest touch hides treacherous claws."
Nor were other labourers, more nearly connected with the producing interests, satisfied with a reduction of wages because produce had fallen in price all round.
In New South Wales, whose example was followed by Western Australia, the machinery adopted for fixing the statutory rate of wages was of a somewhat different type.
He had a right to their labour in return for their keep. He might hire them out and receive their wages, pledge them for debt, even sell them outright.
The Belgian state telegraphs were started in 1850 and were at first very profitable, but for the years 1866-9 they yielded an average profit of only 2.8 per cent., and subsequently failed to earn operating expenses, the reasons for the steady decline of the profits being the opening of relatively unprofitable lines and offices, increases in wages, and a diminution in growth of the foreign and transit messages which had constituted the most profitable part of the whole business.
Emigration has, however, recently assumed such proportions as to lead to scarcity of labor and rise of wages in Italy itself.
In the former case a peasant family undertakes all the necessary work in return for payment in money or kind, which varies according to the crop; in the latter the money wages and the payment in kind are fixed beforehand.
The wages are lower than under the boaria.
The cura tori or curatoli (factors) receive 40 a year, with a slight interest in the profits; the stockmen hardly earn in money and kind 13; the muleteers and underworkmen get between 5 to 8, plus firewood, bread and oil; irregular workmen have even lower wages, with a daily distribution of bread, salt and oil.
Wages are higher, the cost of the prime necessaries of life is, as a rule, lower, though taxation on some of them is still enormous; so that the remuneration of work has improved.
Taking into account the variations in wages and in the price of wheat, it may be calculated that the number of hours of work requisite to earn a sum equal to the price of a cwt.
Wages vary greatly in different parts of Italy, according to the cost of the necessaries of life, the degree of development of working-class needs and the state of working-class organization, which in some places has succeeded in increasing the rates of pay.
Women are, as a rule, paid less than men, and though their wages have also increased, the rise has been slighter than in the case of men.
The strikes and other economic agitations at this time may be divided roughly into three groups: strikes in industrial centres for higher wages, shorter hours and better labor conditions generally; strikes of agricultural laborers in northern Italy for better contracts with the landlords; disturbances among the south Italian peasantry due to low wages, unemployment (particularly in Apulia), and the claims of the laborers to public land occupied illegally by the landlords, combined with local feuds and the struggle for power of the various influential families.
One consequence of the agrarian agitations was the increased use of machinery and the reduction in the number of hands employed, which if it proved advantageous to the landlord and to the few laborers retained, who received higher wages, resulted in an increase of unemployment.
Land for farming purposes is expensive, and wages are high, leaving small profit, unless it happens that a man, with his family to assist him, works his own land.
It is needless to add that the wages divided by the artels are higher than those earned by isolated workmen.
Meantime, the purchasing power of the dollar which the railway company receives for a specified service is gradually growing smaller, owing to the general increases year by year in wages and in the cost of material.
The maintenance of the requisite plant and the high wages current render such repairs somewhat costly.
To meet this situation, the Statute of Labourers 1351) enacted that no man should refuse to work at the same rate of wages as prevailed before the plague.
Average Weekly Cash Wages of ordinary Agricultural Labourers employed on certain Farms in England and Wales.
The justices were authorized to fix wages at the Easter quarter sessions.
(5) That the magistrates used their powers sometimes to raise wages, sometimes to force them down.
(7) That the wages assessments group themselves round certain short periods, coincident in many instances with high prices, increase of poverty, and other causes of exceptional action.
If all the industries belong to one economic area over which, so far as we can tell from general statistics of wages and prices, and other information, fairly homogeneous conditions prevailed, we may be able to reach some useful conclusions as to the operation of the act.
We cannot assume that the fluctuations in wages were due to the action or inaction of magistrates without the most careful examination of the other influences affecting the trades.
We cannot suppose that the policy of the Merchant Adventurers' Company had nothing to do with the woollen industry; that the export trade in woollen cloth was quite independent of the foreign exchanges and international trade relations in those times; that the effect on wages of the state of the currency, the influx of new silver, the character of the harvests, and many other influences can be conveniently ignored.
For five years these high wages ruled; but in 1886 there was a sharp fall, though wages still remained very good.
In 1890 matters were on the eve of a great change and wages fell, in most cases to a point 20% below the rates of 1885.
Taking everything into consideration the reduction was, perhaps, not less than 20 Lo, so that, though the nominal or money wages in 1873 and 1890 were the same, the actual wages were much higher in the latter year.
It was hard indeed for a carter drawing coal to a gasworks to recognize the necessity which compelled a reduction in his wages because wool had fallen 20 7 0.
Up to 1889 wages held their ground, although work had become more difficult to obtain, and some industries were being carried on without any profit.
This was the planting of a colony of communistic per week for which such wages are payable, with the rates for overtime when those hours are exceeded.
The phenomenon of emigration in Sicily cannot altogether be explained by low wages, which have risen, though prices have done the same.
We shall best illustrate the character and method of economic reasoning by examples, and for that purpose let us take first of An all a purely historical problem, namely, the effect on of the wage-earners of the wages clauses of the Statute of Apprenticeship (1563).
In 1873 there was an important rise in wages, in the following year there was a further advance, and another in 1876; but in 1877 wages fell back a little, though not below the rate of 1874.
But these conclusions, after all, suggest more difficulties than they remove, for they show that our inquiry, instead of presenting certain well-marked features which can be readily dealt with, has to be split up into a number of highly specialized studies: the investigation of rates of wages, prices and the standard of comfort in different localities, bye-industries, regularity of employment, the organization of particular trades, the economic functions of local authorities, apprenticeship and a host of other subjects.
In Emilia the day laborers, known as disobbligati, earn, on the contrary, low wages, out of which they have to provide for shelter and to lay by something against unemployment.
The conclusions we reach may or may not modify any opinions we have formed as to the manner in which wages are determined under modern conditions.
Suppose we have selected one of the numerous subsidiary problems suggested by the general inquiry, and obtained such full and complete information about one particular industry that we of a can tabulate the wages of the workers for a long series of years.
The labour question again became acute in the early years of the 10th century, when, owing to the scarcity of hands and the high rate of wages, selfbinding harvesters were resorted to in England for the ingathering of the corn crops to a greater extent than ever before.
(6) That the local variations of wages and prices were what we should call excessive, so that the standard of comfort in one district was very different from that of others.