Gallinaceous birds, storkand crane-like waders, rails, birds of prey, cormorants, &c. Especially numerous bones have been found in the Paris basin, chiefly described by G.
Ardeae.-Piscivorous, nidicolous, waders; with complicated hypotarsus and with long cervical apteria.
Ciconiae.-Zoophagous, nidicolous, waders; with simple hypotarsus and without cervical apteria.
Nidifugous, waders; with simple hypotarsus and without cervical apteria.
But it was now made to appear that the struthious birds in this respect resembled, not only the duck, but a great many other groups - waders, birds-of-prey, pigeons, passerines and perhaps all birds not gallinaceous - so that, according to Cuvier's view, the five points of ossification observed in the Gallinae, instead of exhibiting the normal process, exhibited one quite exceptional, and that in all other birds, so far as he had been enabled to investigate the matter, ossification of the sternum began at two points only, situated near the anterior upper margin of the side of the sternum, and gradually crept towards the keel, into which it presently extended; and, though he allowed the appearance of detached portions of calcareous matter at the base of the still cartilaginous keel in ducks at a certain age, he seemed to consider this an individual peculiarity.
Waders are represented by more than fifty species.
Besides these waders there are plover (chidori); golden (muna-guro or aiguro); gray (dailee); ringed (shiro-chidori); spur-winged (ken) and Hartings sand-plover (ikaru-chidors); sand-pipersgreen (ashiroshigi) and spoon-billed (hera-shigi)-and water-hens (ban).
Foxes and lemmings are met with, but whereas animals are few, birds are very numerous; a variety of ducks, waders, &c., frequent the marshes and lakes.
On the plains a few waders breed, as the avocet, western willet and longbilled curlew; but most are birds of passage.
Wolves and foxes are found alike in the coldest and hottest parts of the earth, as are closely allied species of falcons, owls, sparrows and numerous genera of waders and aquatic birds.
Waders and waterfowl are far less abundant, and those occurring are nearly all migratory forms which visit the peninsula of India - the only important exception being two kinds of solitary snipe and the red-billed curlew.