Sulphur when warmed with caoutchouc combines with it, and on this fact the vulcanization of rubber depends, and also the production, with an excess of sulphur, of the hard black material known as vulcanite or ebonite.
After vulcanization, rubber is no longer softened by a moderate heat, a temperature of 160° C. scarcely affecting it, nor is it rendered rigid by cold, and the ordinary solvents fail to dissolve it.
When a manufactured article has been saturated with sulphur in the melted sulphur bath, the heat necessary for vulcanization may be obtained either by highpressure steam, by heated glycerin, or by immersion in a sulphur bath heated to about 140° C. In this last case absorption of the sulphur and its intimate combination with the rubber occur simultaneously.
Cut sheets, or articles made from them, may be saturated by being laid in powdered sulphur maintained for some hours at about 110° C. Sheets sulphured in this way can be made up into articles and joined together either by warming the parts to be united, or by means of indiarubber solution; after which the true vulcanization, or " curing," as it is termed, can be brought about in the usual way.
Vulcanization takes place in this instance without the action of heat; but it is usual to subject the goods for a short time to a temperature of 40° C. after their removal from the solution, in order to drive off the liquid which has been absorbed, and to ensure a sufficient action of the chloride of sulphur.
Vulcanization is then ensured by exposure for half an hour or more to a temperature of 135 0 -150° C., usually in closed iron vessels into which highpressure steam is admitted (fig.
Vulcanization is then effected by steam heat, and, the preparation on the cloth being softened by water, the sheet of rubber is readily removed.
Rollers are made to adhere to their metal spindles by the intervention of a layer of ebonite, and after vulcanization they are turned.
When the vulcanization of rubber is carried too far, from the presence of a very large proportion of sulphur and an unduly long action of heat, the caoutchouc becomes hard, horn-like, and often black.
Rubber hardened by over-vulcanization is largely manufactured under the name of ebonite or vulcanite.