At Saqqara, opposite Memphis itself, the steppyramid of Zoser of the IIIrd Dynasty, several pyramids of the Vth and VIth Dynasties, and innumerable mastaba-tombs of the Old Kingdom, are crowded together in the cemetery.
Coote's Remarkable Maps of the X Vth, X Vlth and X VIIth Centuries reproduced in their Original Size (Amsterdam, 1894-1897), and Bibliotheca lindesiana (London, 1898) with facsimiles of the Harleian and other Dieppese maps of the 16th century.
Neuserre of the Vth Dynasty appears to have been in the shape of a stumpy obelisk on a vast scale, only the base now remains, but hieroglyphic pictures, indicate this form.
Dedicated statues to his predecessors of the Vth Dynasty who had probably showed their devotion to Ammon in a substantial manner, and Cheops of the IVth Dynasty is named in it.
A scrap of annals has been found extending from the earliest times to the Vth Dynasty, as well as a very fragmentary list of kings reaching nearly to the end of the Middle Kingdom, to help out the scattered data of the other monuments.
Main Sources.(a) The Pyramid texts, a vast collection of incantations inscribed on the inner walls of five royal tombs of the Vth and VIth Dynasties at Sakkgra, discovered and first published by Maspero.
By the time that the Pyramid texts were put into writing, doubtless long before the Vth Dynasty, this religion had assumed a stereotyped appearance that clung to it for ever afterwards.
It was a splendid edifice dedicated to the sun-god Re by a king of the Vth Dynasty, and was probably a close copy of the famous temple of Heliopolis.
In it we have(a) the recently discovered inscriptions of the 1st Dynasty, too brief and concise to throw much light on the language of that time; and the great collections of spells and ritual texts found inscribed in the Pyramids of the Vth and VIth Dynasties, which must even then have been of high antiquity, though they contain later additions made in the same style.
(b) A few historical texts and an abundance of short inscriptions representing the language of the IVth, Vth and VIth Dynasties.
110,111) fixed in the end of a stick and revolved with a weight on the top, as shown in scenes on the tombs of the Vth Dynasty.
These are: (I) The royal tombs, which in the Vth, VIth, XVIIIth, XIXth and XXth Dynasties are fully inscribed; but as the texts are always religious and not historical, they are less important than many other remains.
The XXI Vth Dynasty consisted of a single Saite king named Bocchoris (Bekerrinf), son of Tefnachthus, apparently the above Tefnakht.
This Sothic period r era of 1460 years, during which the Egyptian New Years day travelled all round the Sothic year, is recorded by Greek and Roman writers at least as early as the 1st century B.C. The epagomenal days appear on a monument of the Vth Dynasty and in the very ancient Pyramid texts.
Under the Vth Dynasty this method was so much the rule that the words of numbering were commonly omitted.