Except a small area around Vredefort in the north, the whole of the province is occupied by rocks of Karroo age.
At Vredefort there is a granitic boss, belonging to the Swaziland series, regarded as being an intrusive in the overlying Witwatersrand series by G.
In the north-west of the trunk railway are: Parijs, 1732, finely situated on the Vaal, and Vredefort, 759.
The principal tobacco-growing regions are Vredefort, which produced 258,645 lb in 1904, and Kroonstad (80,385 lb), the districts of Bethlehem, Ladybrand and Winburg also producing considerable quantities.
Of other minerals gold has been found, but up to 1909 was not worked; iron ore exists near Kroonstad and Vredefort, but it also is not worked.