In the same manner the potentiometer may be used to calibrate a voltmeter by the aid of a divided resistance of known value.
In the case of the voltmeter method of measuring power devised by W.
Sumpner in 1891, an electrostatic voltmeter is employed to measure the fall of potential V 1 down any inductive circuit in which it is desired to measure the power absorption, and also the volt-drop V2 down an inductionless resistance R in series with it, and also the volt-drop V3 down the two together.
VOLTMETER, an instrument for measuring difference of electric potential (see Electrostatics) in terms of the unit called a volt.
A voltmeter is therefore one form of electrometer, but the term is generally employed to describe the instrument which indicates on a scale, not merely in arbitrary units but directly in volts, the potential difference of its terminals.
One much-used electrostatic voltmeter of this type is the Kelvin multicellular vertical pattern voltmeter (fig.
Numerous forms of hot-wire or thermal voltmeter have been devised.
In that known as the Cardew voltmeter, a fine platinum-silver wire, having a resistance of about 300 ohms, is stretched in a tube or upon a frame contained in a tube.
In the Hartmann and Braun form of hot-wire voltmeter, the fine wire is fixed between two supports, and the expansion produced when a current is passed through it causes the wire to sag down, the sag being multiplied by a gear and made to move an indicating needle over a scale.
- Round Dial Kelvin Multicellular Electrostatic Voltmeter, 5-in.
One of the most useful forms of electromagnetic voltmeter is that generally known as a movable coil voltmeter (fig.
In this case a highresistance wire is connected between the points of which the potential difference is required, and from some known fraction of this resistance wires are brought to an electrostatic voltmeter, or to a movable coil electromagnetic voltmeter, according as the voltage to be measured is alternating or continuous.
This measurement is applicable to the measurement of high potentials, either alternating or continuous, provided that in the case of alternating currents the high resistance employed is wound non-inductively and an electrostatic voltmeter is used.
It is always an advantage, if possible, to employ an electrostatic voltmeter for measuring potential difference if it is necessary to keep the voltmeter permanently connected to the two points.
Any form of electrokinetic voltmeter which involves the passage of a current through the wire necessitates the expenditure of energy to maintain this current and therefore involves cost of production.
Since there are 8760 hours in a year, if such an instrument were connected continuously to the circuit it would take up energy equal to 263,000 watt-hours, or 260 Board of Trade units per annum, If the cost of production of this energy was only one penny per unit, the working expenses of keeping such a voltmeter in connexion with a circuit would therefore be more than £i per annum, representing a capitalized value of, say, £io.
The qualities required in a good voltmeter are: - (i.) It should be quick in action, that is to say, the needle should come quickly to a position giving immediately the P.D.
- Round Dial Voltmeter of Kelvin Siphon Recorder, dead beat moving coil type, with front removed.
The principles of telegraphy (land, submarine and wireless) and of telephony are discussed in the articles Telegraph and Telephone, and various electrical instruments are treated in separate articles such as Amperemeter; Electrometer; Galvanometer; Voltmeter; Wheatstone'S Bridge; Potentiometer; Meter, Electric; Electrophorus; Leyden Jar; &C.