It was of course well known, as a necessity of Maxwell's mathematical theory, that the polarization and depolarization of an insulator must give rise to the same electromagnetic effects in the neighbourhood as a voltaic current in a conductor.
Extending his investigations to the currents produced by batteries, he found that the total voltaic heat generated in any circuit was proportional to the number of electrochemical equivalents electrolysed in each cell multiplied by the electromotive force of the battery.
Next came the discovery of Galvani and of Volta, and as a consequence a fresh set of proposals, in which voltaic electricity was to be used.
Davy on the decomposition of the solutions of salts by the voltaic current were turned to account in the water voltameter telegraph of Sdmmering and the modification of it proposed by Schweigger, and in a similar method proposed by Coxe, in which a solution of salts was substituted for water.
When such a tube is inserted in series with a single voltaic cell and galvanometer it is found that the resistance of the tube is nearly infinite, provided the filings are not too tightly squeezed.
At the receiving station Marconi connected a single voltaic cell B 1 and a sensitive telegraphic relay R in series with his tube of metallic filings C, and interposed certain little coils called choking coils.
In series with the tube is placed a single voltaic cell and a telegraphic relay, and Marconi added certain coils placed across the spark contacts of the relay to prevent the local sparks affecting the coherer.
If in a vessel of nitric acid are placed a large platinum plate and a platinum electrode of very small surface such as that produced when an extremely fine platinum wire is slightly immersed in the liquid, and if a current from a single voltaic cell is passed through the electrolytic cell so that the fine wire is the anode or positive pole, then the small surface will be polarized or covered with a film of gas due to electrolysis (fig.
Fessenden employed a simple fine loop of Wollaston platinum wire in series with a telephone and shunted voltaic cell, so that when electric oscillations passed through the fine wire its resistance was increased and the current through the telephone suddenly diminished (R.
The receiving arrangements comprised also an open or antenna circuit connected directly with a closed condenser-inductance circuit, but in place of the spark gap in the transmitter an electrolytic receiver was inserted, having in connexion with it as indicator a voltaic cell and telephone.
C. Oersted's discovery that a magnetic needle is acted on by a voltaic current.
At a later period he was one of the leading contributors to the Encyclopaedia Britannica (seventh and eighth editions), the articles on Electricity, Hydrodynamics, Magnetism, Microscope, Optics, Stereoscope, Voltaic Electricity, &c., being from his pen.
He passed the current driven by a voltaic battery ZnPt (fig.
Considered thermodynamically, voltaic cells must be divided into reversible and non-reversible systems. If the slow processes of diffusion be ignored, the Daniell cell already described may be taken as a type of a reversible cell.
This condition may be realized to some extent in a manner that throws light on the general theory of the voltaic cell.
More ions can go into solution unless an equivalent number are removed by voltaic action.
Thin platinum wire was rendered incandescent by a voltaic current; a small incandescent electric lamp would now be found more satisfactory.
The term potentiometer is usually applied to an instrument for the measurement of steady or continuous potential difference between two points in terms of the potential difference of the terminals of a standard voltaic cell of some kind, such as a Clark or Weston cell.
Other voltaic standards of electromotive force are in use, such as the Weston cadmium cell, the Helmholtz calomel cell, and the standard Daniell cell.
The first experiment which he has recorded was the construction of a voltaic pile with seven halfpence, seven disks of sheet zinc, and six pieces of paper moistened with salt water.
P. 362) gives the following note from his laboratory book on the 10th of September 1822: "Polarized a ray of lamplight by reflection, and endeavoured to ascertain whether any depolarizing action (was) exerted on it by water placed between the poles of a voltaic battery in a glass cistern; one Wollaston's trough used; the fluids decomposed were pure water, weak solution of sulphate of soda, and strong sulphuric acid; none of them had any effect on the polarized light, either when out of or in the voltaic circuit, so that no particular arrangement of particles could be ascertained in this way."
Bouchotte have 1 See Lord Kelvin, Reprint of Papers on Electrostatics and Magnetism (1872);" Electrophoric Apparatus and Illustrations of Voltaic Theory,"p. 319;" On Electric Machines Founded on Induction and Convection,"p. 330;" The Reciprocal Electrophorus,"P. 337.
When the two metal surfaces are connected for a short time with the terminals of some source of electromotive force, such as an electric machine, an induction coil or a voltaic battery, electric energy is stored up in the condenser in the form of electric strain in the glass, and can be recovered again in the form of an electric discharge.
The first extends from the date of publication of Gilbert's great treatise in 1600 to the invention by Volta of the voltaic pile and the first production of the electric current in 1799.
This led him about 1799 to devise his famous voltaic pile consisting of disks of copper and zinc or other metals with wet cloth placed between the pairs.
Thomson), by the use of his then newly-invented electrometer, was able to confirm Volta's observations on contact electricity by irrefutable evidence, but the contact theory of the voltaic pile was then placed on a basis consistent with the principle of the conservation of energy.
De la Rive and Faraday were ardent supporters of the chemical theory of the pile, and even at the present time opinions of physicists can hardly be said to be in entire accordance as to the source of the electromotive force in a voltaic couple or pile.2 Improvements in the form of the voltaic pile were almost immediately made by W.
Large voltaic piles were then constructed by Andrew Crosse (1784-1855) and Sir H.
In July 1808 Davy laid a request before the managers of the Royal Institution that they would set on foot a subscription for the purchase of a specially large voltaic battery; as a result he was provided with one of 2000 pairs of plates, and the first experiment performed with it was the production of the electric arc light between carbon poles.
- Noticing an analogy between the polarity of the voltaic pile and that of the magnet, philosophers had long been anxious to discover a relation between the two, but twenty years elapsed after the invention of the pile before Hans Christian Oersted (1777-1851), professor of natural philosophy in the university of Copenhagen, made in 1819 the discovery which has immortalized his name.
Sir Oliver Lodge reviewed the whole position in a paper in 1885, " On the Seat of the Electromotive Force in a Voltaic Cell," Journ.
Oersted's important discovery was the fact that when a wire joining the end plates of a voltaic pile is held near a pivoted magnet or compass needle, the latter is deflected and places itself more or less transversely to the wire, the direction depending upon whether the wire is above or below the needle, and on the manner in which the copper or zinc ends of the pile are connected to it.
In 1821 Michael Faraday (1791-1867), who was destined later on to do so much for the science of electricity, discovered electromagnetic rotation, having succeeded in causing a wire conveying a voltaic current to rotate continuously round the pole of a permanent magnet.
Sturgeon in 1824 wound a copper wire round a bar of iron bent in the shape of a horseshoe, and passing a voltaic current through the wire showed that the iron became powerfully magnetized as long as the connexion with the pile was maintained (Trans.
Joseph Henry, in the United States, first suggested the construction of what were then called intensity electromagnets, by winding upon a horseshoe-shaped piece of soft iron many superimposed windings of copper wire, insulated by covering it with silk or cotton, and then sending through the coils the current from a voltaic battery.
Ohm (1787-1854) rendered a great service to electrical science by his mathematical investigation of the voltaic circuit, and publication of his paper, Die galvanische Kette mathematisch bearbeitet.
One of these coils was connected with the voltaic battery and the other with the galvanometer.
The 3rd series (1833) he devoted to discussion of the identity of electricity derived from various sources, frictional, voltaic, animal and thermal, and he proved by rigorous experiments the identity and similarity in properties of the electricity generated by these various methods.
The 8th series is occupied with a discussion of the theory of the voltaic pile, in which Faraday accumulates evidence to prove that the source of the energy of the pile must be chemical.
The needle is charged to a potential of 50 to 200 volts by means of a dry pile or voltaic battery, or from a lighting circuit.
Ampere floated a voltaic battery with a coil of wire in its circuit in order to observe the effects of the earth's magnetism on the electric circuit.
Raoult's earliest researches were physical in character, being largely concerned with the phenomena of the voltaic cell, and later there was a period when more purely chemical questions engaged his attention.
Electrical studies, however, engaged most of his attention, especially in connexion with the theory of the voltaic cell and the electric discharge in rarefied gases.
The word is applied to various small compartments which build up a compound structure such as a honeycomb, to the minute compartments in a tissue, &c. More particularly the word is used, in electrical science, of the single constituent compartments of a voltaic battery, and in biology of the living units of protoplasm of which plants and animals are composed (see Cytology).