Of voltage which are performed rapidly during each period by the alternating current.
The safe voltage for most glass jars is about 20,000 volts for glass 1 ' 0 th in.
Electrostatic fields come from a voltage gradient and can exist when charge carriers are stationary.
The resistance of the meter coils causes a fall in voltage down the series coil which reduces the supply pressure to the consumer.
As the operation proceeded, it was found that the voltage had to be raised until it became prohibitive, while the anodes rapidly became honeycombed through and, crumbling away, filled up the space at the bottom of the vat.
If the contact springs can be moved round the disk so as to vary the instant of contact, we can plot out the value of the observed instantaneous voltage of the machine or circuit in a wavy curve, showing the wave form of the electromotive force of the alternator.
These spark balls are connected either to the secondary circuit of an induction coil I, or to that of an alternating current transformer having a secondary voltage of 20,000 to 100,000 volts.
One of the best methods for doing this is to charge the Ab l condenser by the known voltage of a battery, and then d e t erdischarge it through a galvanometer and repeat this minations.
The exact position of the core, and, therefore, of an index needle connected with it, is dependent on the ratio of the voltage applied to the terminals of the high resistance or insulator and the current passing through it, This, however, is a measure of the insulation-resistance.
The red glow of argon was readily obtained with a voltage of 2000, but not with much less.
This contact may be made to close the circuit of a suitable voltmeter, or to charge a condenser in connexion with it, and the reading of the voltmeter will therefore not be the average or effective voltage of the alternator, but the instantaneous value of the electromotive force corresponding to that instant during the phase, determined by the position of the rotating contact slip with reference to the poles of the alternator.
The object of the test is to discover the resistance of the insulator I, that is, to determine how much current flows through this insulator by leakage under a certain electromotive force or voltage which must not be less than that which will be employed in practice when the electric lights supplied through these wires are in operation.
This compound possesses a heat of formation so much lower that electrically it needs but a voltage of 0.9 to decomplose it, and it is easily soluble in the fused sulphides of the alkali metals.
Near the town is a station for reducing the voltage, and current is distributed at 125 volts for lighting purposes and at 500 volts for use on the tramways and for other power purposes.
If secondary effects are eliminated, the deposition of metals also is a reversible process; the decomposition voltage is equal to the electromotive force which the metal itself gives when going into solution.
Hence the resistance of the insulator can be ascertained, since it is expressed in ohms by the ratio of the voltage of the battery in volts to the current through the C C galvanometer in amperes.
It was soon discovered that the faculty of inducing dissociation possessed by the current might now be utilized with some hope of pecuniary success, but as electrolytic currents are of lower voltage than those required in electric furnaces, molten alumina again became impossible.
Cryolite is not a safe body to electrolyse, because the minimum voltage needed to break up the aluminium fluoride is 4.0, whereas the sodium fluoride requires only 4.7 volts; if, therefore, the current rises in tension, the alkali is reduced, and the final product consists of an alloy with sodium.
Perfect electrical contact between the steel and mercury for low voltage currents, but when electric oscillations were passed through the junction it was pierced and good electrical contact established as long as the oscillations continued.
Soluble impurities which are more electro-negative than the metal under treatment must, if present, be removed by a preliminary process, and the voltage and other conditions must be so selected that none of the more electro-positive metals are co-deposited with the metal to be refined.
A simple method for condenser comparison is to charge the two condensers to the same voltage by a battery and then discharge them successively through a ballistic galvanometer and observe the respective " throws " or deflections of the coil or needle.
The tangent of the angle of deflection 0 of this needle measured from its position, when the shunt coil is disconnected, is equal to the ratio of the voltage of the dynamo to the current through the insulator.
In one the exciting armature is rotated, producing the working voltage of 250, 500 or loon volts.
In these circumstances the current passing through the galvanometer is known, provided that the voltage of the battery is determined by means of a potentiometer.
In this case a highresistance wire is connected between the points of which the potential difference is required, and from some known fraction of this resistance wires are brought to an electrostatic voltmeter, or to a movable coil electromagnetic voltmeter, according as the voltage to be measured is alternating or continuous.
The transformer working from a public supply should give about 6000 volts on open circuit, although when the electric flame is established the voltage on the platinums is only from 1600 to 2000.
The corresponding double chloride is a far better material; first, because it melts at about 180° C., and does not volatilize below a red heat, and second, because the voltage of aluminium chloride is 2.3 and that of sodium chloride 4.3, so that there is a much wider margin of safety to cover irregularities in the electric pressure.
As a part of the voltage is consumed in the latter duty, only the residue can be converted into chemical work, and as the theoretical voltage of the aluminium fluoride in the cryolite is 4.0, provided the bath is kept properly supplied with alumina, the fluorides are not attacked.
A current of great electromotive force (intensity or voltage) passed through the coil D, induces, by means of the core and frame, a current of enormous quantity (volume or amperage), but very small electromotive force, in the metal in the trough.
When glass tubes are used it is better to employ tubes thicker at the ends than in the middle, as it has been found that when the safe voltage is exceeded and the glass gives way under electric strain, the piercing of the glass nearly always takes place at the edges of the tin foil.
In., the dielectric strength of the air is greatly increased, and the plates may therefore be brought very near to one another without causing a spark to pass under such voltage as would cause discharge in air at normal pressure.
Under the series system only the first anode and the last cathode are connected to the conductors; between these are suspended, isolated from one another, a number of intermediate bi-polar electrode plates of raw copper, each of these plates acting on one side as a cathode, receiving a deposit of copper, and on the other as an anode, passing into solution; the voltage between the terminals of the tank will be as many times as great as that between a single pair of plates as there are spaces between electrodes in the tank.
So again, in the case of the Paris curves, the absolute value of the diurnal range in summer was much greater for the Eiffel Tower than for the Bureau Central, but the mean voltage was 2150 at the former station and only 134 at the latter.
To ascertain how the increase in the voltage varies as the height in the free atmosphere increases, it is necessary to employ kites or balloons.
Increase in the voltage acting upon a solid conductor increases the current through it, but in the case of the electric arc an increase in current is accompanied by a fall in the difference of potential of the carbons, within certain limits, and the arc has therefore been said to possess a negative resistance.'
It is necessary that the voltage of the current shall be constant whatever be the increase of the speed of the train, and therefore of the dynamo.
In aqueous solutions, for instance, a few hydrogen (H) and hydroxyl (OH) ions derived from the water are always present, and will be liberated if the other ions require a higher decomposition voltage and the current be kept so small that hydrogen and hydroxyl ions can be formed fast enough to carry all the current across the junction between solution and electrode.
On setting the dynamo in operation, a current passes through the shunt coil of the ohmmeter proportional to the voltage of the dynamo, and, if there is any sensible leakage through the insulator to earth, at the same time another current passes through the series coil proportional to the conductivity of the insulation of the wiring under the electromotive force used.
If we call this last resistance R, the voltage of the working dynamo V, and the current through the insulator C, then tan 0 = C/V = R.