HERNICI, an ancient people of Italy, whose territory was in Latium between the Fucine Lake and the Trerus, bounded b'y the Volscian on the S., and by the Aequian and the Marsian on the N.
In the Volscian territory lay the little town of Velitrae (Velletri), the birthplace of Augustus.
It shows on the one hand the labialization of the original velar q(Volscian pis = Latin quis), and on the other hand it palatalizes the guttural c before a following i (Volscian facia=Latin faciat).
Like Umbrian also, but unlike Latin and Oscan, it has degraded all the diphthongs into simple vowels (Volscian se parallel to Oscan svai; Volscian deue, Old Latin and Oscan deivai or deiuoi).
For the text and fuller account of the Volscian inscription, and for other records of the dialect, see R.
South of Palestrina again, the main mass of the Apennines throws off another lateral mass, known in ancient times as the Volscian mountains (now called the Monti Lepini), separated from the central ranges by the broad valley of the Sacco, a tributary of the Liri (Liris) or Garigliano, and forming a large and rugged mountain mass, nearly 5000 ft.
The volcanic region of the Terra di Lavoro is separated by the Volscian mountains from the Roman district.
And Oscan, (3) Messapian, (4) North Oscan, (5) Volscian, (6) East Italic or Sabellic, (7) Latinian, (8) Sabine, (9) Iguvine or Umbrian, (10) Gallic, (11) Ligurian and (12) Venetic.
A still older road ran along the foot of the Volscian mountains past Cora, Norba and Setia; this served as the post road until the end of the 18th century.
It is said to have been an Alban colony: it was a member of the Latin league of 499 B.C. and became Volscian in 488.
Its position, at the point where the Volscian Hills reach the coast, leaving no space for passage between them and the sea, commanding the Pomptine Marshes (urbs pron g in paludes, as Livy calls it) and possessing a small harbour, was one of great strategic importance; and it thus appears very early in Roman history.
From the slopes of the Volscian Hills, has been repaired and is in use.
Extremity of the Volscian Mountains; it is 36 m.
The modern village, which was called Monte Fortino until 1870, owes its present name to an unwarrantable identification of the site with the ancient Volscian Artena, destroyed in 404 B.C. Another Artena, which belonged to the district of Caere, and lay between it and Veii, was destroyed in the period of the kings,and its site is quite unknown.
It occupies the site of the ancient Fundi, a Volscian town, belonging later to Latium adjectum, on the Via Appia, still represented by the modern high-road which passes through the centre of the town.
ARICINI, the ancient inhabitants of Aricia, the form of the name ranking them with the Sidicini, Marrucini, &c., as one of the communities belonging probably to the earlier or Volscian stratum of population on the west side of Italy, who were absorbed by the Sabine or Latin immigrants.
The -tisuffix is comparatively frequent in the Volscian district and very frequent in the Umbrian; it is also fairly well represented in Latium and Etruria.
Anzio), an ancient Volscian city on the coast of Latium, about 33 m.
The Volscian city stood on higher ground and somewhat away from the shore, though it extended down to it.
Several of the Latin cities, including Tibur and Praeneste, were situated on the terrace-like underfalls of these mountains, 2 while Cora, Norba and Setia were placed in like manner on the slopes of the Volscian mountains (Monti Lepini), a rugged and lofty limestone range, which runs parallel to the main mass of the Apennines, being separated from them, however, by the valley of the Trerus (Sacco), and forms a continuous barrier from there to Terra.cina.
The region of the Pomptine Marshes occupies almost the whole tract between the sandy belt on the sea-shore and the Volscian mountains, extending from the southern foot of the Alban Hills below Velletri to the sea near Terracina.
Again lay Ardea, the ancient capital of the Rutuli, and some distance beyond that Antium, situated on the sea-coast, which does not occur in the list of Dionysius, and is, in the early annals of Rome, called a Volscian town - even their chief city.
Satricum, on the other hand, was certainly south of the Alban Hills, between Velitrae and Antium; while Cora, Norba and Setia (all of which retain their ancient names with little modification) crowned the rocky heights which form advanced posts from the Volscian mountains towards the Pontine Marshes.
There must too have been a road, along the line of the later Via Appia, to Bovillae, Aricia, Lanuvium and Velitrae, going thence to Cora, Norba and Setia along the foot of the Volscian Mountains; while nameless roads, which can still be traced, led direct from Rome to Satricum and to Lavinium.
After the dissolution of the Latin league which followed upon the defeat of the united forces of the Samnites and of those Latin and Volscian cities which had revolted against Rome, two new tribes, Maecia and Scaptia, 3 were created in 332 B.C. in connexion with the distribution of the newly acquired lands (Mommsen, History, i.
Piperno, and the tribus Falerna (in the Ager Falernus), while the foundation of the colonies of Cales (334) and Fregellae (328) secured the newly won south Volscian and Campanian territories and led no doubt to a prolongation of the Via Latina.
The forests of the Alban hills and near the coast produce much charcoal and light timber, while the Sabine and Volscian hills have been largely deforested and are now bare limestone rocks.
Much of the labour in the winter and spring is furnished by peasants who come down from the Volscian and Hernican mountains, and from Abruzzi, and occupy sometimes caves, but more often the straw or wicker huts which are so characteristic a feature of the Campagna.
Emigration to America, especially from the Volscian and Hernican towns, is now considerable.
It included the Hernican cities of Anagnia, Ferentinum, Alatrium and Verulae - a group of mountain strongholds on the north side of the valley of the Trerus (Sacco); together with the Volscian cities on the south of the same valley, and in that of the Liris, the whole of which, with the exception of its extreme upper end, was included in the Volscian territory.
They are traversed by three principal valleys: (I) that of the Anio, now called Teverone, which descends from above Subiaco to Tivoli, where it enters the plain of the Campagna; (2) that of the Trerus (Sacco), which has its source below Palestrina (Praeneste), and flows through a comparatively broad valley that separates the main mass of the Apennines from the Volscian mountains or Monti Lepini, till it joins the Liris below Ceprano; (3) that of the Liris (Garigliano), which enters the confines of New Latium about 20 m.
744 - which seems to connect it with the locative of aequum " a plain," so that it would mean "dwellers in the plain"; but in the historical period they certainly lived mainly in the hills), we should know whether they were to be grouped with the q or the p dialects, that is to say, with Latin on the one hand, which preserved an original q, or with the dialect of Velitrae, commonly called Volscian (and the Volsci were the constant allies of the Aequi), on the other hand, in which, as in the Iguvine and Samnite dialects, an original q is changed into p. There is no decisive evidence to show whether the q in Latin aequus represents an Indo-European q as in Latin quis, Umbro-Volsc. pis, or an Indo-European k + u as in equus, Umb.
CORIOLI, an ancient Volscian city in Latium adiectum, taken, according to the Roman annals in 493 B.C., with Longula and Pollusca, and retaken (but see above) for the Volsci by Gaius Marcius Coriolanus, its original conqueror, who, in disgust at his treatment by his countrymen, had deserted to the enemy.
The volcanic mountains of the province of Rome are separated from the Apennines by the Tiber valley, and the Monti Lepini, or Volscian mountains, by the valleys of the Sacco and Liri.
POMPTINE MARSHES, a low tract of land in the province of Rome, Italy, varying in breadth between the Volscian mountains and the sea from 10 to 16 m., and extending N.W.
Attempts to drain the marshes were made by Appius Claudius in 3r 2 B.C., when he constructed the Via Appia through them (the road having previously followed a devious course at the foot of the Volscian mountains), and at various times during the Roman period.
His father was by some said to have been descended from Attius Tullius, the Volscian host of Coriolanus, while spiteful persons declared him to have been a fuller; in any case he was a Roman knight with property at Arpinum and a house in Rome.
Velletri has a fine view of the Volscian mountains and over the Pomptine Marshes to the Circeian promontory.
The ancient city of Velitrae was Volscian in Republican times, and it is the only Volscian town of which an inscription in that language is preserved (4th century B.C.).
It was, however, a member of the Latin League in 499 B.C., so that in origin it may have been Latin and have fallen into Volscian hands later.
It was important as commanding the approach to the valley between the Alban and Volscian mountains.