For the first time the Volga became a Russian river.
TSARITSYN, a town of Russia, in the government of Saratov, situated on the right bank of the Volga, where it suddenly turns towards the south-east, 40 m.
Corn from middle Russia for Astrakhan is transferred from the railway to boats at Tsaritsyn; timber and wooden wares from the upper Volga are unloaded here and sent by rail to Kalach; and fish, salt and fruits sent from Astrakhan by boat up the Volga are here unloaded and despatched by rail to the interior of Russia.
A fort was erected here in the 16th century to prevent the incursions of the free Cossacks and runaway serfs who gathered on the lower Volga, as also the raids of the Kalmucks and Circassians.
He reached Asiatic the headquarters of Batu, on the Volga, in February journeys.
21, 108, 109), probably on the middle course of the Volga about Samara.
The double river-systems of the Volga and Kama, the Ob and Irtysh, the Angara and Yenisei, the Lena and Vitim on the Arctic slope, and the Amur and Sungari on the Pacific slope, are instances.
There the Volga, the Ural, the Syr-darya and the Amu-darya discharge their waters without reaching the ocean, but they bring life to the rapidly desiccating Transcaspian steppes, and link together the most remote parts of Russia.
The limits of the Russian Jurassic system may be represented by a line drawn from the double valley of the Sukhona and Vytchegda to that of the upper Volga, and thence to Kieff, with a wide gulf penetrating towards the N.W.
Along the watershed of the Volga and Pechora (?).
Up the Volga valley, as far as its Samara bend.
By the faint swelling of the Uvaly, the watershed between the Arctic Ocean and the Volga basin.
Of the Caspian, comprising the lower Volga and the Ural and Emba rivers, and establishing a link between Russia and the Aral-Caspian region.
By plains below 300 ft., which join the depression of the middle Volga, and extend as far as the mouth of the Oka.
Moreover, the chief rivers, the Volga, the W.
By their means the plains of the central plateau - the very heart of Russia, whose natural outlet was the Caspian - were brought into water-communication with the Baltic, and the Volga basin was connected with the Gulf of Finland.
The White Sea has also been brought into connexion with the central Volga basin while the sister-river of the Volga - the Kama - became the main artery of communication with Siberia.
They freeze in winter and dry up in summer, and most of them are navigable only during the spring floods; even the Volga becomes so shallow during the hot season that none but boats of light draught can pass over its shoals.
The Volkhov, discharging into Lake Ladoga, and forming part of the Vyshniy-Volochok system of canals, is an important channel for navigation; it flows from Lake Ilmen, which receives the Msta, connected with the Volga, and the Lovat.
Which give rise to the Volga and the W.
At Tsaritsyn, approaching the Volga, with which it is connected by a railway (45 m.).
Its navigation is of great importance, especially for goods brought from the Volga, and its fisheries are extensive.
Ragozin, Volga (St Petersburg, 1890); Peretyatkovich, Volga; and Mikhailov, Kama.
The Volga remains frozen for a period varying between 150 days in the N.
Limit of the ante-steppe is represented by a line drawn from the Pruth through Zhitomir, Kursk, Tambov and Stavropol-on-Volga to the sources of the Ural river.
Appears the lime tree, which multiplies rapidly and, notwithstanding the rapidity with which it is being exterminated, constitutes entire forests in the east (central Volga, Ufa).
The number of species of herbaceous plants rapidly increases, while beyond the Volga a variety of Asiatic species are added to the W.
In the Volga below Nizhniy-Novgorod the sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus), and others of.
Russia was 'the seat of the empire' of the Khazars, who drove the Bulgarians, descendants of the Huns, from the Don, one Section of them migia.tiug up thu Volga to found there the Bulgarian empire, and the remainder travelling towards the Danube.
Bogdanov, Birds and Mammals of the Black-Earth Region of the Volga Basin (in Russian, Kazan, 1871); Karelin for the southern Urals; Kessler for fishes; Strauch, Die Schlangen des Russ.
With Turkish (the present Bashkirs); the Bulgars, whose origin still remains doubtful, on the middle Volga and Kama; and to the S.E.
On the lower Don and Volga we have the Sauromatae, and on the middle course of the Volga the Budini with the great wooden town of Gelonus and its semi-Greek inhabitants.
Several flour-mills and other factories have recently sprung up. Much grain is exported; timber is brought from the upper Volga, and manufactured wares from Nizhniy Novgorod.
A disastrous attack on Astrakhan, with the object of carrying out Sokolli's plan for uniting the' Don and the Volga, first brought the Turks into collision with the Russians.
EASTERN BULGARIA, formerly a powerful kingdom which existed from the 5th to the 15th century on the middle Volga, in the present territory of the provinces of Samara, Simbirsk, Saratov and N.
The Bulgars of the Volga were of Turkish origin, but may have assimilated Finnish and, later, Slavonian elements.
Of the town of Tver, occupying the bluffs on both banks of the Volga (here 350 ft.
The primitive methods originally in use in the Russian oil-fields have already been described; but these were long ago superseded by pipe-lines, while a great deal of oil is carried by tank steamers on the Caspian to the mouth of the Volga where it is transferred to barges and thence at Tzaritzin to railway tank-cars.
In addition large quantities are shipped at Baku direct for the Volga and the Transcaspian port of Krasnovodsk.
In the 10th century bands of Varangians or Russified Scandinavians sailed out of the Volga and coasted along the Caspian until they had doubled the Apsheron peninsula, when they landed and captured Barda, the chief town of Caucasian Albania.
Russian aggression began somewhat early in the r8th century, when Peter the Great, establishing his base at Astrakhan on the Volga, and using the Caspian for bringing up supplies and munitions of war, captured Derbent from the Persians in 1722, and Baku in the following year.
Between the Volga and the Lena in Manchuria and northern China, rather more considerable increase in Korea, Siam and Japan.