It is along the western side of the northern half of the chain that the line of volcanic action is apparent; the islands here (of which some are active volcanoes) are lofty.
Extinct volcanoes are numerous in several of the ranges, e.g.
On the Pacific slope extinct volcanoes (mentioned in Chinese annals) have been reported in the Ilkhuri-alin mountains in northern Manchuria.
Since the Rev. William Ellis and a party of American missionaries first made the volcano known to the civilized ' Among the minqr phenomena of Hawaiian volcanoes are the delicate glassy fibres called Pele's hair by the Hawaiians, which are spun by the wind from the rising and falling drops of liquid lava, and blown over the edge or into the crevices of the crater.
In all these cases, however, the eruptions have now almost ceased; and the great volcanoes of the present day lie in the islands off the eastern and south-eastern coasts.
In three of them the volcanoes are entirely extinct, while the fourth is still in great activity.
Finally in the east of Yezo rise the most westerly volcanoes of the Kurile chain.
This part of Mexico is highly volcanic in character, the transverse ridge just described having a large number of extinct volcanoes and at least three (Colima, Jorullo and Ceboruco) that are either active or semi-active.
Mineral Springs.The presence of so many active volcanoes is partially compensated by a wealth of mineral springs.
Among these are to be found a singularly large number of both active and inactive volcanoes, including the well-known Salak and Gede in the north, and bunched together at the eastern end the Chikorai, Papandayan, Wayang, Malabar, Guntur, &c., ranging from 6000 to 10,000 ft.
In the southern region of unfolded beds are found the lavas of the " harras " of Arabia, and in India the extensive flows of the Deccan Trap. In the central folded belt lie the great volcanoes, now mostly extinct, of Asia Minor, Armenia, Persia and Baluchistan.
It is, however, impossible to subdivide the Sierra Madre into a northern and a volcanic chain; for the volcanoes are isolated by stretches of comparatively low countr y; at least thirteen considerable streams flow down between them, from the main watershed to the sea.
In Tertiary times the Central Plateau was the theatre of great volcanic activity from the Miocene, to the Pleistocene periods, and many of the volcanoes remain as nearly perfect cones to the present day.
Forbes was also interested in geology, and published memoirs on the thermal springs of the Pyrenees, on the extinct volcanoes of the Vivarais (Ardeche), on the geology of the Cuchullin and Eildon hills, &c. In addition to about 150 scientific papers, he wrote Travels through the Alps of Savoy and Other Parts of the Pennine Chain, with Observations on the Phenomena of Glaciers (1843); Norway and its Glaciers (1853); Occasional Papers on the Theory of Glaciers (1859); A Tour of Mont Blanc and Monte Rosa (1855).
The existing volcanoes belong to four separate arcs or chains.
The lavas and ashes ejected by these volcanoes consist of liparite, dacite, andesite and basalt.
They are considered to be volcanoes, and the mountains of the neighbouring Uliasser islands the remains of volcanoes.
Volcanic dust thrown into the air settles out slowly, and some of the products of submarine and littoral volcanoes, like pumice-stone, possess a remarkable power of floating and may drift into any part of the ocean before they become waterlogged and sink.
The geography of the Western province includes many interesting features, the in many ways peculiar Albert Nyanza (q.v.), the great snowy range of Ruwenzori (q.v.), the dense Semliki, Budonga, Mpanga and Bunyaraguru forests, the salt lakes and salt springs of Unyoro and western Toro, the innumerable and singularly beautiful crater lakes of Toro and Ankole, the volcanic region of Mfumbiro (where active and extinct volcanoes rise in great cones to altitudes of from 11,000 to nearly 15,000 ft.), and the healthy plateaus of Ankole, which are in a lesser degree analogous in climate and position, and the Nandi plateau on the east of Victoria Nyanza.
The peaks of the Guatemala Cordillera rise round it, culminating near its southern end in the volcanoes of San Pedro (7000 ft.) and Atitlan (11,719 ft.).
While the majority of his researches bear on one or other of the subjects just mentioned, others deal with such widely different topics as the birds of Greenland, ocean temperatures, the Gulf Stream, barometric measurement of heights, arcs of meridian, glacier transport of rocks, the volcanoes of the Hawaiian Islands, and various points of meteorology.
Above the sea, but there are five ancient snow-capped volcanoes which equal or exceed to,000 ft.
Nothing in the general physiognomy of the islands is more remarkable than the number and distribution of the volcanoes, active or extinct.
The principal volcanoes of the Chillan group are the Nevado (9528 ft.) and the Viejo.
Are the active volcanoes of Colima (12,750 ft.) and the Nevado de Colima (14,363) ft.).
Cinder cones and tufa cones abound, but one of the most distinguishing features of the Hawaiian volcanoes is the great number of craters of the engulfment type, i.e.
Kyaukpyu contains numerous "mud volcanoes," from which marsh gas is frequently discharged, with occasional issue of flame.
- The salient features of the Australian continent are its compact outline, the absence of navigable rivers communicating with the interior, the absence of active volcanoes or snow-capped mountains, its isolation from other lands, and its antiquity.
The absence of active volcanoes in Australia is a state of things, in a geological sense, quite new to the continent.
A number of small extinct volcanoes, however, appear in all directions.
Free or native sulphur, known also as "virgin sulphur," occurs in connexion with volcanoes and in certain stratified rocks in several modes, viz.
The dioxide has been known since the earliest times and is found as a naturally occurring product in the gaseous exhalations of volcanoes and in solution in some volcanic springs.
The highest volcanoes, Tabanan, Batur and Gunung Agung (Bali Beak), have respectively heights of 7545 ft., 73 8 3 ft., and 10,497 ft., the central chain having an average altitude of 3282 ft.
To the south of Rotoiti is Tikitere, a sombre valley abounding in mud volcanoes, springs and other active volcanic phenomena.
The district abounds in geysers, springs, mud volcanoes and other phenomena; some of the waters have petrifying powers, and some of the springs are vividly coloured.
Numerous extinct volcanoes rise near Neuwied.
Mud volcanoes occur at Minbu, but they are not in any sense mountains, resembling rather the hot springs which are found in many parts of Burma.
Whether the mud " volcanoes" of the Irrawaddy valley have any connexion with volcanic activity may be doubted.
But generally these volcanoes are quiescent.
Volcanoes Fuji is the most remarkable volcanic peak.
Among still active volcanoes the following are the best known Name of Volcano Height in feet.
Kaimon (Kagoshima One of the most beautiful volcanoes of Bay) 3041.
But although this conception might reasonably be suggested by the presence of many active and extinct volcanoes, Professor J.
North and east of the Fossa Magna the structure is concealed, to a very large extent, by the outpourings of the volcanoes which form so marked a feature in the northern part of Hondo.
But the foundation on which the volcanoes rest is exposed along the east coast of Hondo (in the Kwanto, Abukuma and Kitakami hills), and also in the island of Yezo.
The rift-valley faults continue down the depression, marked by numerous volcanoes, in the region of the Natron Lake and Lake Manyara; while the steep walls of the deep depression of Tanganyika and Nyasa represent the western rift system at its maximum development..
Fine lakes and waterfalls, innumerable pools, in temperature from boiling-point to cold, geysers, solfataras, fumaroles and mud volcanoes still attract tourists in large numbers.
In other areas, however, there is still volcanic activity, and in many cases volcanoes to which only tradition attributes eruptions can hardly be classified as extinct.
Orizaba is sometimes included among the semi-active volcanoes, but this is a mistake.
" Only on the supposition that these volcanoes, which are on the surface connected by a skeleton of volcanic rocks, are also united under the surface by a chain of volcanic elements in continual activity, may we account for the earthquakes which in the direction mentioned cause the American continent, from the Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific Ocean, to oscillate at the same time " (Egloffstein, p. 37).
The Cascade Range is in essence a maturely dissected highland, composed in part of upwarped Colombian lavas, in part of older rocks, and crowned with several dissected volcanoes, of which the chief are (beginning in the north) Mts Baker (Io,827 ft.), Rainier (14,363 ft.), Adams (12,470 ft.) and Hood (11,225 ft.); the first three in \Vashington, the last in northern Oregon- These bear snowfields and glaciers; while the dissected highlands, with ridges of very irregular arrangement, are everywhere sculptured in a fashion that strongly suggests the work of numerous local Pleistocene glaciers as an important supplement to preglacial erosion.
The remarkable line of volcanoes around the whole coast of the Pacific and along the margin of the Caribbean and Mediterranean seas is one of the most conspicuous features of the globe.
The central part of the Malay Arch;- group is a volcanic region, many of the volcanoes being.
Volcanic in origin - the Jebel ed-Druz is a group of extinct volcanoes - the friable volcanic soil is extraordinarily fertile.
The depression is marked by a line of volcanoes, including Fuji, and is in part buried beneath the products of their eruptions.
A group of large volcanoes occurs on the limestone platform s6uth of the Grand Canyon, culminating in Mt San Francisco (12,794 ft.), a moderately dissected cone, and associated with many more recent smaller cones and freshlooking lava flows.
All the volcanoes in the group were then quiescent.
On these chains are the volcanoes and many thermal springs.
During the Tertiary period the great volcanoes of the Andes were formed, and there were smaller eruptions in the Sierras.