Two years after his accession Mahommed overcame a rebellion of the prince of Karamania and recaptured his stronghold Konia (1416), and then, turning northwards, forced Mircea, voivode of Walachia, who in the dispute as to the succession had supported Prince Mussa, to pay tribute.
Peace was also made at the same time with the despot of Servia and the voivode of Walachia, on the basis of the payment of tribute.
In Transylvania, however, the common peril evoked by the Turkish incursion and a simultaneous rising of the Vlach peasantry had knit together the jarring interests of Magyars, Saxons and Szeklers, a union which, under the national hero, the voivode Janos Hunyadi, was destined for a while to turn the tide of war.
The pope urged the king of Hungary to take advantage of this favourable opportunity by breaking the truce solemnly agreed upon, and nineteen days after it had been concluded a coalition was formed against the Turks; a large army headed by Ladislaus I., king of Hungary, Hunyadi, voivode of Walachia, and Cardinal Cesarini crossed the Danube and reached Varna, where they hoped to be joined by the Greek emperor.
The base of the very mixed and evershifting population in these parts were the Vlachs (Rumanians), perhaps the descendants of Trajan's colonists, who, under their voivode, Bazarad, led King Charles into an ambuscade from which he barely escaped with his life (Nov.
This desolate region was subsequently peopled by Vlachs, whom the religious persecutions of Louis the Great had driven thither from other parts of his domains, and, between 1350 and 1360, their voivode Bogdan threw off the Hungarian yoke altogether.
He had to be content with armistices, reconciliations and matrimonial contracts, because the great dignitaries of the state, men like the palatine Laszlo Garai, Count Ulrich of Cilli, and the voivode of Transylvania, Mihaly Ujlaky, thwarted in every way the novas homo whom they hated and envied.
Stephen Bathory, voivode of Transylvania and count of the Szeklers, for instance, ruled Transylvania like a Turkish pasha, and threatened to behead all who dared to complain of his exactions; " Stinking carrion," he said, was better than living Szeklers.
The Turks had no sooner quitted the land than John Zapolya, voivode of Transylvania, assembled a diet at Tokaj (Oct.
A week later Trumbic and his colleagues were welcomed on the Balkan front by the Voivode Misic with an impassioned speech in favour of unity.
A little later (January 1657) he suppressed with ruthless severity a rising of the spahis; a certain Sheik Salim, leader of the fanatical mob of the capital, was drowned in the Bosporus; and the Greek Patriarch, who had written to the voivode of Wallachia to announce the approaching downfall of Islam, was hanged.
Immediately after the death of King Louis, who fell on the field of battle, the emperor Ferdinand and John Zapolya, voivode of Transylvania, competed for the vacant crown, and both were elected almost simultaneously.
At the beginning of 1668 he defeated the voivode Jakov Bezobrazov, sent against him from Astrakhan, and in the spring embarked on a predatory expedition into Persia which lasted for eighteen months.
In 1475 Stephen the Great, having dethroned the voivode Radu, burned the town.
The gipsies of Transylvania, who are heard of under a voivode or prince of their own in 1417, are estimated at 50,000; many of them have taken to agriculture or gold-washing.
In 1526 the Hungarian crown fell to the house of Austria, the voivode John Zapoly"a succeeded in rendering himself independent.
VOIVODE (also Vaivode, Vayvode, Wayvode, &c., Med.
During the period of Hungarian domination of Transylvania (1004-1526) it was governed by a voivode as an Hungarian province, the last voivode raising himself to the position of an independent prince.
At the present day voivode is used, in its original sense of a high military officer, in the Montenegrin army, where it corresponds to the general officer in other European armies.
Although the characteristic titles of voivode, knez and ban (all implying military as well as civil authority) are of Slavonic origin, and perhaps derived from the practice of the later Bulgarian (or Bulgaro-Vlachian) empire, the growth of Vlach feudal institutions is attributed to German influences, which permeated through Hungarian channels into the Vlach world, and transformed the primitive tribal chiefs into a feudal aristocracy of boiars or boyards 2 (nobles).
The Black Prince), voivode of the Rumans of Fogaras in Transylvania, who in 1290 descended with a numerous people into the Transalpine plain and established his capital first at Campulung and then at Curtea de Argesh.
In 1330 the voivode John Bassaraba 1 or Bazarab the Great (1310-38) succeeded in inflicting a crushing defeat on his suzerain King Charles I.
Ing the Hungarian supremacy, but in 1367 the voivode Vlad or Vladislav inflicted another severe defeat on the Hungarians, and succeeded for a time in ousting the Magyar governor of Turnu Severin, and thus incorporating Oltland in his own dominions.
Subsequently, in order to retain a hold on the loyalty of the Walachian voivode, the king of Hungary invested him with the title of duke of Fogaras and Omlas,.
Under the voivode Mircea (1386-1418), whose prowess is still celebrated in the national folk-songs, Walachia played for a.
Bayezid subsequently invaded and laid waste a large part of Walachia, but the voivode succeeded in inflicting considerable loss on the retiring Turks, and the capture of Bayezid by Timur in 1402 gave the country a reprieve.
The Walachians resisted desperately, elected Radu, a kinsman of Neagoe, voivode, and succeeded with Hungarian help in defeating Mahmud Bey at Grumatz in 1522.
The voivode Alexander, who succeeded in 1591, and like his predecessors had bought his post of the Divan, carried the oppression still further by introducing a janissary guard and farming out his possessions to his Turkish supporters.
By previous concert with the Moldavian voivode Aaron, on the 13th of November 1594, the Turkish guards and settlers in the two principalities were massacred at a given signal.
The voivode Radu (1462-75) was substituted for this monster by Turkish influence, and constrained to pay a tribute of 12,000 ducats; but Vlad returned to the throne in 1476-77.
Michael withdrew to the mountains before this overwhelming force, but, being joined by Báthory with a Transylvanian contingent, the voivode resumed the offensive, stormed Bucharest, where Sinan had entrenched a Turkish detachment, and, pursuing the main body of his forces to the Danube, overtook the rearguard and cut it to pieces, capturing enormous booty.
As prince of Transylvania he summoned diets in 1599 and 1600, and, having expelled the voivode of Moldavia, united under his sceptre three principalities.
The reign of the voivode Matthias Bassaraba (1633-54) was an interval of comparative prosperity.
Matthias repulsed his powerful rival, Basil the Wolf, the voivode of Moldavia and his Tatar and Cossack allies.
The mechanical skill of the Walachians was found useful by the Turks, who employed them as carpenters and pontonniers; and during the siege of Vienna in 1683 the Walachian contingent, which, under the voivode erban Cantacu zene, had been forced to co-operate with the Turks, was entrusted with the construction of the two bridges over the Danube above and below Vienna.
This peaceful state of the country gave the voivode leisure to promote its internal culture, and in the year of his death he had the satisfaction of seeing the first part of a Walachian Bible issue from the first printingpress of the country, which he had established at Bucharest.
In his relations with the Habsburg power he displayed the same caution as the voivode §erban.
The office of voivode or hospodar was sold to the highest bidder at Stambul, to be farmed out from a purely mercenary point of view.
The Moldavian lowlands were still held by a variety of Tatar tribes, who were only expelled after 135c, by the united efforts of Andrew Laszkovich, voivode of Transylvania, and Bogdan Voda, the first independent prince of Moldavia.
Should, however, the Turks invade the country, the Polish and Hungarian forces were to unite in expelling them, the voivode was to be deposed, and the Moldavian territories divided between the allies.
In 1456 the voivode Peter, alarmed at the progress of the Turks, who were now dominant in Servia and Walachia, offered the sultan Mahomet II.
Throughout the long reign of this voivode, which lasted forty-six years, from 1458 to 1504, his courage and resources never failed.
The voivode Stephen withdrew into the interior at the approach of this overwhelming host, but on the 17th, of 'January 1475, turned to bay at Rahova (Podul malt, near Vaslui) and gained a complete victory over the Turks.
Three years later a Polish invasion of Moldavia under John Albert with 80,000 men ended in disaster, and shortly afterwards the voivode Stephen, aided by a Turkish and Tatar contingent, laid waste the Polish territories to the upper waters of the Vistula, and succeeded in annexing for a time the Polish province of Pokutia, between the Carpathians and the Dniester.
" At feud with Poland about Pokutia, despairing of efficacious support from hardpressed Hungary, the new voivode saw no hope of safety except in a dependent alliance with the ad vancing Ottoman power, which already hemmed Moldavia in on the Walachian and Crimean sides.
The terms of Moldavian submission were further regulated by a firman signed by the sultan Suleiman at Budapest in 1529 by which the yearly present or backshish, as the tribute was euphoniously called, was fixed at 4000 ducats, 40 horses and 25 falcons, and the voivode was bound at need to supply the Turkish army with a contingent of r000 men.
Already by the middle of the 16th century the yoke was so heavy that the voivode Elias (1546-51) became Mahommedan to avoid the sultan's anger.
In 1561 the adventurer and impostor Jacob Basilicus succeeded with Hungarian help in turning out the voivode Alexander Lapusheanu (1552-61 and 1563-68) and seizing on the reins of government.
He published an astounding pedigree, in which, starting from " Hercules Triptolemus," he wound his way through the royal Servian line to the kinship of Moldavian voivodes, and, having won the emperor Ferdinand to his financial and military support, succeeded, though at the head of only 1600 cavalry, in routing by a bold dash the vastly superior forces of the voivode, and even in purchasing the Turkish confirmation of his usurped title.
The expelled voivode Alexander was now restored by the Porte, the schools were destroyed, and the country relapsed into its normal state of barbarism under Bogdan IV.
As in Walachia at a somewhat later date, the Phanariote regime seemed now thoroughly established in Moldavia, and it became the rule that every three years the voivode should procure his confirmation by a large baksheesh, and every year by a smaller one.
The last voivode of the Bassaraba family, Elias Voda, reigned from 1667 to 1669.
The voivode Duka was forced like his Walachian contemporary to supply a contingent for the siege of Vienna in 1683.
In 1711 the voivode Demetrius Cantemir, rendered desperate by the Turkish exactions, concluded an agreement with the tsar Peter the Great by which Moldavia was to become a protected and vassal state of Russia, with the enjoyment of its traditional liberties, the voivodeship to be hereditary in the family of Cantemir.
The office of voivode or hospodar was farmed out by the Porte to a succession of wealthy Greeks from the Phanar quarter of Constantinople.
The treaty was hardly concluded when it was violated by the Porte, which refused to recognize the right of the Walachian boiars to elect their voivode, and nominated Alexander Ypsilanti, a creature of its own.
In 1777 Constantine Murusi was made voivode of Moldavia in the same high-handed fashion.
In 1804 the Serbs under Karageorge rose against the Turkish dominion, and were secretly aided by the Walachian voivode Ypsilanti.
Of Austria and his rival John Zapolya, voivode of Transylvania.
In 1600, however, at the head of an army of Poles and Cossacks, he attempted to recover his throne, but was routed by Michael, voivode of Moldavia, at Suceava.