This view can be briefly stated as follows: Everywhere in the wide realm of observation we find three distinct 1 See Vogt, Physiologische Briefe (1845-1847); Moleschott, Der Kreislauf des Lebens (1852); Buchner, Kraft and Stoff (1855).
The liberties of the burghers were, however, still restrained by the presence of a royal advocatus (Vogt) and bailiff.
Vogt published a collection of Bugenhagen's correspondence in 1888, and a supplement in 1890.
The counts, of course, as over-lords, had their Vogt (advocatus) in the town, but this official, as the city grew in power, became subordinate to the Rath, as at Lubeck.
It was formerly the capital of Vogtland, or Voigtland, a territory governed by the imperial vogt, or bailiff, and this name still clings in popular speech to the hilly district in which the town lies.
The chief official was the royal bailiff (Schultheiss), who is first mentioned in 1193, and whose powers were subsequently enlarged by the abolition, in 1219, of the office of the royal Vogt or advo- catus.
The most important material for her life is to be found in her letters and in the correspondence of Mercy-Argenteau, but a large number of forgeries have found their way into certain of the collections, such as those of Paul Vogt d'Hunolstein (Correspondance inedite de Marie Antoinette, (3rd ed., Paris, 1864), and F.
In feudal subordination to him a royal count, who was also Vogt (advocatus) of the cathedral church of St Martin, had his seat at Utrecht as the chief town of the Gouw (Gau, pagus) of Ifterlake.
Here also must for the time be placed the Caligidae, Philichthyidae (Philichthydae of Vogt, Carus, Claus), Lernaeidae, Chondracanthidae, Sphaeronellidae (better known as Choniostomatidae, from H.
Von Lasaulx, Der Untergang des Hellenismus (1854); Vogt, Neuplatonismus and Christenthum (1836); Ullmann, " Einfluss des Christenthums auf Porphyrius," in the Stud.
Thus the recapitulation law, which had been built up independently from the observations and speculations on vertebrates by Lorenz Ofen (1779-1851), Johann Friedrich Meckel (1781-1833), St Hilaire, Karl Ernst von Baer (1;92-1876) and others, and had been applied (1842-1843) by Karl Vogt (1817-1895) and Agassiz, in their respective fields of observation, to comparison of individual stages with the adults of the same group in preceding geological periods, furnished the key to the determination of the ancestry of the invertebrates generally.
Vogt, Dublin som Norsk By (Christiania, 1896).
Several causes, beginning towards the end of the 18th century, gradually led up to the materialism of Moleschott, Vogt and Buchner, which flourished in the middle of the 19th century.
Thus Karl Christoph Vogt repeated the saying of the French physician Cabanis, " The brain is determined to thought as the stomach is to digestion, or the liver to the secretion of bile," in the form, " Thought stands in the same relation to the brain as the bile to the liver or the urine to the kidneys."
These are, indeed, expressly prohibited in the later charter of Bishop Johann Kvag (1294); and the distinctive character of the constitution of Copenhagen during the middle ages consisted in the absence of the free gild system, and the right of any burgher to pursue a craft under license from the Vogt (advocates) of the overlord and the city authorities.
This privilege, by which the archbishop was lord of the city and his Vogt its judge, was frequently confirmed by subsequent emperors, ending under Frederick I.
In the 13th century, however, whatever the civic organization of the townsfolk may have been, it was still strictly subordinate to the archbishop and his Vogt; the council could issue regulations only with the consent of the former, while in the judicial work of the latter, save in small questions of commercial dishonesty, its sole function was advisory.
I., 1864, pp. 55-57; C. Vogt, "L'Archaeopteryx macrura," Revue scient.
- At the first rise of the town justice was administered to the inhabitants by the Vogt (advocatus) of the count of Holstein.
Simultaneously with its incorporation by Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony, who presented the city with its own mint toll and market, there appears a magistracy of six, chosen probably by the Vogt from the Schtifen (scabini, probi homines).
In the face of so much self-government the Vogt presently disappeared altogether.
In concurrence with the duke's Vogt (advocates) they recognized only one right of judicature within the town, to which nobles as well as artisans had to submit.
The chief of these was usually the advocatus or Vogt, some neighbouring noble who served as the proctor of the church in all secular affairs.
The Vogt, although appointed by the bishop, received the "ban," i.e.