He procured the dismissal of four Russo-phil grand-viziers in succession, and between 1710 and 1712 induced the Porte to declare war against the tsar three times.
The Shiite caliphs of Egypt were by this time the playthings of contending viziers, as the Sunnite caliphs of Bagdad had long been the puppets of Turkish sultans or amirs; and in 1164 Amalric I.
And Nureddin were fighting in Egypt in support of two rival viziers, Dirgham and Shawar.
From the time of Eyubi Effendi until the end of the grand vizierate of Ibrahim Pasha (1730), the empire experienced periodical relief from excessive financial distress under the series of remarkable grand viziers who directed the affairs of state during that time, but the recovery was not permanent.
He often commanded an army in person, and was then given the title of serdari-ekrem (generalissimo); one of the subordinate viziers remained behind as kaimmakam, or locum tenens.
The duties of the other viziers were limited to attending the divan; they were called kubbe or cupola viziers from the fact that the council met under a cupola; they were pashas with three horse-tails, and were attended by large retinues, having generally achieved distinction as beylerbeys.
Cessive grand viziers were unable to restore order to the country.
Afewyearsafter Constantinople passed into the hands of the Ottomans, some ghazels, the work of the contemporary Tatar prince, Mir `Ali Shir, who under the nom de plume of Nevayi wrote much that shows true talent and poetic feeling, found their way to the Ottoman capital, where they were seen and copied by Ahmed Pasha, one of the viziers of Mahommed II.
946) wrote on the Abbasid caliphs, their viziers and court poets; Mas`udi (q.v.) composed various historical and geographical works (d.
It became a question between Amalric and Nureddin, which of the two should control the discordant viziers, who vied with one another for the control of the decadent caliphs of Egypt.
Under the Empire Egypt was administered by a vast bureaucracy, at the head of which, responsible to the king, was the vizier, or sometimes two viziers, one for Upper Egypt, the other for Lower Egypt (in which case the former, stationed at Thebes, had the precedence)., The duties of the viIier and the procedure in his court are detailed in a long inscription which is repeated in three tombs of the XVIIIth Dynasty at Thebes (Breasted, Records, ii.
The viziers offices were given to one of the caliphs creatures, Mahommed b.
Four years later (April 1154) the caliph was murdered by his vizier AbbAs, according to Usgmah, because the caliph had suggested to his favorite, the viziers son, to murder his father; and this was followed by a massacre of the brothers of Zgfir, followed by the raising of his infant son Abul-Qasim Isa to the throne.
The caliph, who up to this time appears to have left the administration to the viziers, now sent for Shirguh, whose speedy arrival in Egypt caused the Franks to withdraw.
His internal administration was marked by gross extravagance, which led to his viziers being forced to practise violent extortion for which they afterwards suffered.
Hence the list of authors connected with Egypt, which occupies pages 161-275 of Suyu~is work, ~Iusn al-muliadarah fi cfkhbri Misr wal-Qahirah (Cairo, 1321 A.H.), contains the names of persons like Mutanabbi, who stayed there for a short time in the service of some patron; Ab Tammm, who lived there before he acquired fame as a poet; Umara of Yemen, who came there at a mature age to spend some years in the service of Ftimite viziers; each of whom figures in lists of authors belonging to some other country also.
The illiterate brigand, whose boyish ambition had not looked beyond the recovery of his father's beylick, was now established as one of the most powerful viziers under the Ottoman government.
Viziers who illustrated his reign.
This principle was elaborated in the firman, issued on the 13th of February, by which the sultan conferred on Mehemet Ali and his heirs by direct descent the pashalik of Egypt, the greatest care being taken not to bestow any rank and authority greater than that enjoyed by other viziers of the empire.
The Abbasid caliphs, who still enjoyed a precarious and shadowy authority at the pleasure of Turkish viziers, gladly surrendered themselves to the protection of the Mahommedan Seljuks, who paid them all outward respect.
The prince, under whom a definite peace was made with Malik al-Nasir, the Mameluke ruler of Egypt, had great trouble with powerful viziers and generals which he accentuated by his passion for Bagdad-Khatun, wife of the amir Uosain and daughter of the amir Chupan.
The assistance of the British government not being forthcoming, the grand viziers position became more and more difficult, and on the 5th of June he had to resign.