-The history of maps is dealt with ably in Vivien de Saint Martin's Histoire de la geographie (Paris, 1875), and in Peschel's Geschichte der Erdkunde (2nd ed.
The central fact of the geste of Guillaume is the battle of the Archamp or Aliscans, in which perished Guillaume's heroic nephew, Vezian or Vivien, a second Roland.
Guillaume arrived too late to help Vivien, was himself defeated, and returned alone to his wife Guibourc, leaving his knights all dead or prisoners.
This event is related in a Norman-French transcript of an old French chanson de geste, the Chancun de Willame - which only was brought to light in 1901 at the sale of the books of Sir Henry Hope Edwardes - in the Covenant Vivien, a recension of an older French chanson and in Aliscans.
Le Couronnement Looys, already mentioned, Le Charroi de Nimes (12th century) in which Guillaume, who had been forgotten in the distribution of fiefs, enumerates his services to the terrified Louis, and Aliscans (r2th century), with the earlier Chanrun, are among the finest of the French epic poems. The figure of Vivien is among the most heroic elaborated by the trouveres, and the giant Rainouart has more than a touch of Rabelaisian humour.
Langlois, 1888), Le Charroi de Nimes, La Prise d'Orange, Le Covenant Vivien, Aliscans, which were edited by W.
P. Tarbe, Reims, 1860);; Le Moniage Guillaume (12th century); Les Enfances Vivien (ed.
Thomas, Etudes romanes (Paris, 1891), on Vivien; L.
Mercier, Histoire de l'Afrique septentrionale (1888); Charles Tissot, Geographic comparee de la province romaine d'Afrique (1884-1888), with atlas; Vivien de SaintMartin, LeNord de l'Afrique dans l'antiquite grecque et romaine (1883); Gaston Boissier, L'Afrique romaine (1895); Cl.
The idyls were four in number, "Enid," "Vivien" (no longer called "Nimue"), "Elaine" and "Guinevere."
Monatsber (1879); Texier, Asie mineure (1862); Steuart, Ancient monuments of Lydia and Phrygia, besides the special chapters in the geographical treatises of Cramer, Vivien St Martin, Forbiger, &c., numerous articles by recent travellers; J.