Alum and blue vitriol (sulphate of copper) are manufactured from decomposed schists at Khetri in Shaikhawati.
Then he treated oil of vitriol in the same way, but got nothing until by accident he dropped some mercury into the liquid, when "vitriolic acid air" (sulphur dioxide) was evolved.
Again he heated fluorspar with oil of vitriol, as K.
Alum, vitriol, sulphur and nitric acid, by distillation.
Strong sulphuric acid dissolves it, forming an acid salt, Pb(HS04)2, which is hydrolysed by adding water, the normal sulphate being precipitated; hence the milkiness exhibited by samples of oil of vitriol on dilution.
As alum and green vitriol were applied to a variety of substances in common, and as both are distinguished by a sweetish and astringent taste, writers, even after the discovery of alum, do not seem to have discriminated the two salts accurately from each other.
In the writings of the alchemists we find the words misy, sory, chalcanthum applied to alum as well as to iron sulphate; and the name atramentum sutorium, which ought to belong, one would suppose, exclusively to green vitriol, applied indifferently to both.
Zinc sulphate, ZnS04+7H20, or white vitriol, is prepared by dissolving the metal in dilute sulphuric acid.
A green pigment known as Rinmann's green is prepared by mixing I oo parts of zinc vitriol with 2.5 parts of cobalt nitrate and heating the mixture to redness, to produce a compound of the two oxides.
The mineral wealth of Baden is not great; but iron, coal, zinc and lead of excellent quality are produced, and silver, copper, gold, cobalt, vitriol and sulphur are obtained in small quantities.
When the oxidation is complete, the anthraquinone is separated in a filter press, washed and heated to 120° C. with commercial oil of vitriol, using about 22 parts of vitriol to i of anthraquinone.
The great industries are coal-miningsome of the pits extending for a long distance beneath the firthiron-founding (with several blast furnaces) and engineering, but it has also important manufactures of salt, soap, vitriol and other chemicals.
Glauber (De natura salium, 1658), who prepared it by the action of oil of vitriol or sulphuric acid on common salt, and, ascribing to it many medicinal virtues, termed it sal mirabile Glauberi.
Works for the manufacture of iron, copper, silver, lead, vitriol and sulphur are carried on to a large extent.
Thus he clearly described the preparation of hydrochloric acid by the action of oil of vitriol on common salt, the manifold virtues of sodium sulphate - sal mirabile, Glauber's salt - formed in the process being one of the chief themes of his Miraculum mundi; and he noticed that nitric acid was formed when nitre was substituted for the common salt.
VITRIOL, a name given to sulphuric acid and to certain sulphates.
Oil of vitriol is concentrated sulphuric acid.
Blue or Roman vitriol ' is copper sulphate; green vitriol, ferrous sulphate (copperas); white vitriol, zinc sulphate; and vitriol of Mars is a basic iron sulphate.
The mineral products of the district also include lignite, copper, manganese, vitriol, lime, gypsum, volcanic stones (used for millstones) and slates.
Cupri rosa, the flower of copper), green vitriol, or ferrous sulphate, FeSO 4.7H 2 0, having a bluish-green colour and an astringent, inky and somewhat sweetish taste.
It is used in dyeing and tanning, and in the manufacture of ink and of Nordhausen sulphuric acid or fuming oil of vitriol (see Iron).
Traces of thallium exist in many kinds of pyrites, as used for vitriol-making.
The best raw materials for the preparation of thallium are the flue-dusts produced industrially in the roasting of thalliferous pyrites and the "chamber muds" accumulating in vitriol-chambers wrought with such pyrites; in both it is frequently associated with selenium.
This means that the previous manufacture of sulphuric acid in the vitriol-chambers is done away with, but this apparently great simplification is balanced by the great cost of the Hargreaves plant, and by the fact that the whole of the hydrochloric acid is mixed with nine or ten times its volume of inert gases.
When oxidation is complete the crude anthraquinone is separated in filter presses and heated with an excess of commercial oil of vitriol to 120° C., the various impurities present in the crude material being sulphonated and rendered soluble in water, whilst the anthraquinone is unaffected; it is then washed, to remove impurities, and dried.
Trade and manufactures are insignificant; iron, lignite, cobalt, alum and vitriol are among the mineral productions.
In the original form of the Douglas-Hunt process, ferrous chloride was formed by the interaction of sodium chloride (common salt) with ferrous sulphate (green vitriol), the sodium sulphate formed at the same time being removed by crystallization.
Cupric sulphate or " Blue Vitriol," CuSO 4, is one of the most important salts of copper.
In working, the muller is raised 2 in., the pan charged with water and then with ore; the muller is then lowered, salt and blue vitriol added, and the charge ground for 3-4 hours.
The suggestion made in 1789 by Jean Claude de la Metherie (1743-1817), the editor of the Journal de physique, that this might be done by calcining with charcoal the sulphate of soda formed from salt by the action of oil of vitriol, did not succeed in practice because the product was almost entirely sulphide of soda, but it gave Le Blanc, as he himself acknowledged, a basis upon which to work.
The whole district is pretty thickly populated, and there is great abundance of wood, as well as of iron, vitriol, sulphur, copper, lead and many kinds of marble.
SULPHURIC ACID, or OIL OF Vitriol, H2so 4, perhaps the most important of all chemicals, both on account of the large quantities made in all industrial countries and of the multifarious uses to which it is put.
Originally prepared by heating alum, green vitriol and other sulphates, and condensing the products of distillation, sulphuric acid, or at least an impure substance containing more or less sulphur trioxide dissolved in water, received considerable attention at the hands of the alchemists.
The acid so obtained from ferrous sulphate (green vitriol) fumes strongly in moist air, hence its name "fuming sulphuric acid"; another name for the same product is "Nordhausen sulphuric acid," on account of the long-continued practice of this process at Nordhausen.
The latter process, which was known to Basil Valentine, was commercially applied by the quack doctor, Joshua Ward (1685-1761), of Twickenham, England, to the manufacture of the acid, which was known as "oil of vitriol made by the bell" or per campanum.
The production of sulphuric acid by the assistance of the oxides of the nitrogen is carried out in the" vitriol chambers."These are immense receptacles, mostly from 100 to 200 ft.
The vitriol chambers must be supported on all sides by suitable wooden or iron framework, and they are always erected at a certain height over the ground, so that any leaks occurring can be easily detected.
The reactions taking place in the vitriol chambers are very complicated, and have been explained in many different ways.
The solid substance is, however, only exceptionally met with, as it at once dissolves in the mist of sulphuric acid floating in the chamber and forms" nitrous vitriol."Wherever this nitrous vitriol comes into contact with liquid water (not steam), which is also present in the chamber in the shape of mist, and practically as dilute sulphuric acid, it is decomposed into sulphuric and nitrous acid, thus: SO 2 (OH)(ONO) + H 2 O = H 2 SO 4 + HN02.
This theory at once explains, among other things, why the acid formed in the vitriol chambers always contains an excess of water (the second of the above-quoted reactions requiring the "mass action" of this excess), and why the external cooling produced by the contact of the chamber sides with the air is of great importance (liquid water in the shape of a mist of dilute sulphuric acid being necessary for the process).
It is evident that the "nitrous gases" present in the vitriol chamber consist essentially of a mixture of NO and N02, the latter being formed from NO by the excess of oxygen present.
Whatever be the true theory of the vitriol-chamber process, there is no doubt about the way in which the reactions have to be carried out in practice.
But this important invention was of little use until John Glover, about 1866, found that the nitrous vitriol could be most easily reintroduced into the process by subjecting it to the action of burner-gas before this enters into the lead chambers, preferably after diluting it with chamber acid, that is, acid of from 65 to 70%, H 2 SO 4, as formed in the lead chambers.
F, F, F, Vitriol chambers.
Many attempts have been made to reduce the chamber space by apparatus intended to bring about a better mixture of the gases, and to facilitate the interaction of the misty particles of nitrous vitriol and dilute acid floating in the chamber with each other and with the chamber atmosphere.
Most of the sulphuric acid manufactured is not required to be of higher strength than is furnished by the vitriol chambers, either directly (65 to 70%), or after a passage through the Glover tower (78 to 80%).
Fuming or Nordhausen Oil of Vitriol, a mixture or chemical com pound of H 2 SO 4, with more or less S03, has been made for centuries by exposing pyritic schist to the influence of atmospheric agents, collecting the solution of ferrous and ferric sulphate thus formed, boiling it down into a hard mass ("vitriolstein") and heating this to a low red heat in small earthenware retorts.
Altogether this process has been brought to such a pitch of simplicity and perfection, that it is cheap enough, not merely for the manufacture of fuming oil of vitriol of all strengths, but even for that of ordinary sulphuric acid of chamber-acid strength, while it is decidedly cheaper than the old process in the case of stronger acids, otherwise obtained by concentration by fire.
- Sulphuric acid or oil of vitriol is a colourless oilylooking liquid incompatible with alkalis and their carbonates, lead and calcium.
There are two medicinal preparations: (1) Acidum sulphuricum dilutum, containing 13.65% of hydrogen sulphate, (2) acidum sulphuricum aromaticum (elixir of vitriol), containing'alcohol, spirit of cinnamon and ginger and 13.8% of hydrogen sulphate.