The art of viticulture or wine-making is a very ancient one.
In the Andean provinces of Mendoza, San Juan, Catamarca and Rioja viticulture attracts much attention, and the area in vineyards in 1901 was 109,546 acres, only 18% of which was outside the four provinces named.
The district produces wheat, maize, barley and tobacco; sericulture and viticulture are both practised on a limited scale.
There are a modern cathedral, a school of viticulture and a high school, besides an ancient clock-tower and the palace (Konak) formerly occupied by the Turkish pashas.
Conservatorium of music. The surrounding district is largely devoted to viticulture and fruit-growing.
Agriculture, and specially viticulture, is the principal occupation of the population, and the vine is here planted not only in regular vineyards, but is introduced in long lines through the ordinary fields and carried up the hills in terraces locally called ronchi.
Viticulture is well developed, and the best sorts of wine are produced near Capodistria, Muggia, Isola, Parenzo and Dignano,.
In 1853, however, the grape disease attacked the vineyards; and thenceforward the production of cochineal, which had been introduced in 1825, took the place of viticulture so completely that, twenty years later, the exports of cochineal were worth £556,000.
Beaune has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, a school of agriculture and viticulture and colleges for girls and boys.
It is probable, therefore, that viticulture was introduced subsequent to the raising of cereal crops.
Viticulture And Wine-Making General Considerations.-Although the wine is cultivated in practically every part of the world possessing an appropriate climate and soil, from California in the West to Persia in the East, and from Germany in the North to the Cape of Good Hope and some of the South American republics in the South, yet, as is the case also with the cereal crops and many fruits and vegetables, the wines produced in countries possessing temperate climates are-when the vintage is successful-finer than those made in hot or semi-tropical regions.
The vines, the methods of viticulture and vinification as regards the red wines of the Graves district, are similar to those of the Medoc. The wines are, if anything, slightly fuller in body and more alcoholic than those of the latter region.
Owing, however, to the fact that viticulture has made much progress in South America, in California, in Australia and particularly in Algeria, and also to the fact that the quality of these Midi wines has fallen off considerably since the phylloxera period, the outlet for them has become much reduced.
Viticulture has made great strides in Algeria during recent years.
The wines of the Rhine are grown in the most northerly latitude at which viticulture is successful in Europe, and consequently, when the seasons are not too unpropitious, they display the hardiness and distinction characteristic of northern products.
In the western districts of the Cape viticulture is largely followed.
Many of the instruments and processes of Portuguese agriculture and viticulture were introduced by the Romans, and are such as Columella described in the 1st century A.D.
Two illustrated volumes by Oswald Crawford, Portugal Old and New (London, 1880) and Round the Calendar in Portugal (London, 1890) contain much valuable information on agriculture, viticulture and peasant life in the northern provinces.
Viticulture is of importance, particularly in the Lewiston valley.
Viticulture plays an important part in the life of the colony.
There is also a school of viticulture .at Weinsberg.
The principal resources are viticulture, the manufacture of cloth, and trade in lime and limestone.
Trent lives rather on its historical souvenirs than on its industries, which are not very extensive, viticulture, silk-spinning and the preparation of salami (a strongly spiced kind of Italian sausage) being the chief.
Viticulture is also of importance; almonds, oranges, lemons, &c., are also grown for export.
Model farms were established at Livno and at Gacko, on the Montenegrin border; a school of viticulture near Mostar; a model poultry-farm at Prijedor, close to the Croatian boundary;.
There is a school of viticulture and a very considerable trade in Moselle wines, especially during the annual auctions.
To meet the needs of technical and industrial education there are a school of mines at San Juan, a school of viticulture at Mendoza, an agronomic and veterinary school at La Plata, several agricultural and pastoral schools, and commercial schools in Buenos Aires, Rosario, Bahia Blanca and Concordia.
The greater part of the country is admirably suited to viticulture, and wine of tolerable quality is produced.