Of the VIth Dynasty, as well as his pyramid in the necropolis, was named Mn - nfr, and this gradually became the usual designation of the whole city, becoming Menfi, Membi in late Egyptian, i.e.
At Saqqara, opposite Memphis itself, the steppyramid of Zoser of the IIIrd Dynasty, several pyramids of the Vth and VIth Dynasties, and innumerable mastaba-tombs of the Old Kingdom, are crowded together in the cemetery.
A priest, " master of the wardrobe," is named as early as the VIth Dynasty, and later texts refer to the weavers and laundry servants of the temple.
The first inhabitants of the region beyond Egypt appear to have been the Uaua, whose name occurs in an inscription on a tomb at Memphis of the VIth Dynasty, and again constantly in subsequent inscriptions down to the time of the Ptolemies, as the chief negro race to the south of Syene.
By the time of the VIth Dynasty it was usual to lay the corpse on its left side in the attitude of sleep, and a wooden coffin was often provided upon which were inscribed magic formulae that had already been employed for ages in ritual.
"A lytil tale Set herd I tel, Pat in to my tyme befel, of a gudman, in murrefe [Moray] borne in elgyne [Elgin], and his kine beforne, and callit was a faithful man vith al Jame fat hyme knew than; fis mare trastely I say, for I kend hyme weile mony day.
At Drah abu'l nagga, opposite to it, are tombs of its princes under the VIth Dynasty.
The army, commanded in chief by Una under the VIth Dynasty for raids in Sinai or Palestine, comprised levies from every part of Egypt and from Nubia, each under its own leader.
Main Sources.(a) The Pyramid texts, a vast collection of incantations inscribed on the inner walls of five royal tombs of the Vth and VIth Dynasties at Sakkgra, discovered and first published by Maspero.
In it we have(a) the recently discovered inscriptions of the 1st Dynasty, too brief and concise to throw much light on the language of that time; and the great collections of spells and ritual texts found inscribed in the Pyramids of the Vth and VIth Dynasties, which must even then have been of high antiquity, though they contain later additions made in the same style.
(b) A few historical texts and an abundance of short inscriptions representing the language of the IVth, Vth and VIth Dynasties.
Striking ToolsThe wooden mallet of club form (I) was used in the VIth and XIIth Dynasties; of the modern masons form (2) ~n.
Battle-axes with rounded outline started as merely a sharp edge of metal (io) inserted along a stick (10, if); they become semicircular (12) by the VIth Dynasty, lengthen to double their width in the XIIth, and then thin out to a waist in the middle by the XVIIIth Dynasty.
Larger toothed saws (47) are often represented in thelVth-VIth Dynasty, as used by carpenters.
In later work we may note that copper scrapers were used for facing the limestone work in the VIth, the XIIth and the XVIIIth Dynasties.
The IVth to VIth Dynasties are best known by the series of pyramids (see PYRAMID) in the region of Memphis.
These are: (I) The royal tombs, which in the Vth, VIth, XVIIIth, XIXth and XXth Dynasties are fully inscribed; but as the texts are always religious and not historical, they are less important than many other remains.
The succession and number of the kings are also ascertained for other dynasties, together with many regnal dates, but very serious gaps exist in the records of the Egyptian monuments, the wo,rst being between the XIIth and the XVIIIth Dynasties, between the XIth and the VIth, and at Dynasties 1.-Ill.
It is 788 3246 possible that the compiler of the Turin 2793 Papyrus, who excluded contemporary reigns in the period between the VIth and the 1731 XIIth Dynasties, here admitted such; nor 580 1580 is a correspondingly large number of kings 350 1322 in so short a period without analogies in history.
Monuments of the XIIth Dynasty are abundant and often of splendid design and workmanship, whereas previously there had been little produced since the VIth Dynasty that was not half barbarous.
Mehemet Au, lissatisfied with the treaty concluded with the Wahhabis, and vith the non-fulfilment of certain of its clauses, determined to end another army to Arabia, and to include in it the soldiers who had recently proved unruly.
In the VIth dynasty.
In the Black Pyramid of Abusir (VIth Dynasty), at least 3000 B.C., Gaston Maspero found some pieces of iron, and in the funeral text of Pepi I.
In the hill on the opposite side of the river are tombs of the VIth to XIIth dynasties, opened by Lord Grenfell in 1885-1886.