Vinogradoff has illuminated the subject in his Villainage inEngland (1892) and his English Society in the rith century (1908).
Elton, Commons and Waste Lands; P. Vinogradoff, Villainage in England.
VILLENAGE (VILLAINAGE, VILLANAGE, VILLEINAGE), a medieval term (from villa, villanus), pointing to serfdom, a condition of men intermediate between freedom and slavery.
BIBLIOGRAPHY.-P. Vinogradoff, Villainage in England (Oxford, 1892) Pollock and Maitland, History of English Law (1895), book ii.
Maitland, Domesday Book and Beyond (1897) P. Vinogradoff, Villainage in England (1892) and Growth of the Manor; A.
Maitland, Domesday Book and Beyond, 66 ff.; P. Vinogradoff, Villainage in England, I 13 ff., 196 ff.; English Society in the ith Century, 431 ff.