BARTAN, more correctly Bartin, a town in the vilayet of Kastamuni, Asiatic Turkey, retaining the name of the ancient village Parthenia and situated near the mouth of the Bartan-su (anc. Parthenius), which formed part of the boundary between Bithynia and Paphlagonia.
The vilayet, of which Trebizond is the chief town, consists of a long irregular strip of coast country, the eastern half of which is deeply indented and mountainous.
Till 1881 it was the seat of a pasha in the vilayet of Jannina; it is now the capital of the Greek province and the seat of a nomarch.
North-eastern Albania forms part of the Turkish vilayet of Kossovo; the northern highlands are included in the vilayet of Shkodra (Scutari), the eastern portion of central Albania belongs to the vilayet of Monastir, and the southern districts are comprised in the vilayet of Iannina.
The population of the vilayet of Scutari is given as 237,000, that of the vilayet of Iannina as 552,000.
The principal towns are Scutari (Albanian Shkoder, with the definite article Shkodr-a), the capital of the vilayet of that name, pop. 32,000; Prizren, 30,000; Iannina (often incorrectly written Ioannina), capital of the southern vilayet, 22,000; Jakova, 12,000; Dibra, 15,000; Prishtina, 11,000; Ipek (Sla y.
In the vilayet of Scutari they form about 55% of the population; central Albania is almost entirely Moslem; in southern Albania, however, there is a considerable Christian population, whose limits practically coincide with those of the Greek-speaking districts.
Kaisarieh), chief town of a sanjak in the Angora vilayet of Asia Minor.
AK' '-SHEHR (anc. Philomelion), a town in Asia Minor, in the Konia vilayet, situated at the edge of a fertile plain, on the north side of the Sultan Dagh.
SULEIMANIEH, or Suleimania, the chief town of a sanjak of the same name in Asiatic Turkey, in the vilayet of Mosul, situated on a treeless plain in the Kurdistan Mountains, in the region known as Shehrizor, some 40 or 50 m.
It forms, with the islands of Syme, Casos, Carpathos, Castelorizo, Telos and Charki, one of the four sanjaks into which the Archipelago vilayet of Turkey is divided.
The governor-general of the vilayet resides at the town of Rhodes.
ADRIANOPLE, a vilayet of European Turkey, corresponding with part of the ancient Thrace, and bounded on the N.
By the Black Sea and the vilayet of Constantinople, S.
The surface of the vilayet is generally mountainous, except in the central valley of the Maritza, and along the banks of its tributaries, the Tunja, Arda, Ergene, &c. On the west, the great Rhodope range and its outlying ridges extend as far as the Maritza, and attain an altitude of more than 7000 f t.
The vilayet suffered severely during the Russian occupation of 1878, when, apart from the natural dislocation of commerce, many of the Moslem cultivators emigrated to Asia Minor, to be free from their alien rulers.
The important silk industry, however, began to revive about 18go, and dairy farming is prosperous; but the condition of the vilayet is far less unsettled than that of Macedonia, owing partly to the preponderance of Moslems among the peasantry, and partly to the nearness of Constantinople, with its Western influences.
TOKAT (Armenian Evtoghia, anc. Dazimon) the chief town of a sanjak of the same name in the Sivas vilayet of Asia Minor.
BUTRINTO, a seaport and fortified town of southern Albania, Turkey, in the vilayet of Iannina; directly opposite the island of Corfu (Corcyra), and on a small stream which issues from Lake Vatzindro or Vivari, into the Bay of Butrinto, an inlet of the Adriatic Sea.
Coast of Asia Minor, in the Trebizond vilayet, and the port - an exposed roadstead - of Kara-Hissar Sharki, with which it is connected by a carriage road.
MARASH (anc. Germanicia-Marasion), the chief town of a sanjak of the same name in the Aleppo vilayet, altitude 2600 ft.
GHAT, or Rhat, an oasis and town, forming part of the Turkish vilayet of Tripoli.
Eregli in the vilayet of Konia), under the name Cybistra, had some importance in Hellenistic times owing to its position near the point where the road to the Cilician Gates enters the hills.
ELMALI (" apple-town"), a small town of Asia Minor in the vilayet of Konia, the present administrative centre of the ancient Lycia, but not itself corresponding to any known ancient city.
Vliona), a town and seaport of Albania, Turkey, in the vilayet of Iannina.
A vali or governor-general, nominated by the sultan, stands at the head of the vilayet, and on him are directly dependent the kaimakams, mutassarifs, deftardars and other administrators of the minor divisions.
BAGDAD, or BAGHDAD, the capital of the Turkish vilayet of the same name.
It is one of the four great shrines of the Shiite Moslems in the vilayet of Bagdad.
AK- HISSAR (anc. Thyateira, the "town of Thya"), a town situated in a fertile plain on the Giirdiik Chai (Lycus), in the Aidin vilayet, 58 m.
KIR-SHEHER, the chief town of a sanjak of the same name in the Angora vilayet of Asia Minor, situated on a tributary of the Kizil Irmak (Halys), on the Angora-Kaisarieh road.
PARGA, a seaport of Albania, European Turkey, in the vilayet of Iannina, and on the Ionian Sea.
" New Market"), a sanjak of European Turkey, in the vilayet of Kossovo.
(2) The capital of the vilayet, the ancient Castamon, altitude 2 500 ft., situated in the narrow valley of the Geuk Irmak (A mnias), and connected by a carriage road, 54 m., with its port Ineboli on the Black Sea.
(1) A vilayet of Asiatic Turkey, comprising N.
BILEJIK (Byzantine Belocome), chief town of the Ertoghrul sanjak of the Brusa vilayet in Asia Minor, altitude 1900 ft., situated on a hill 22 m.
Since that date it has formed the vilayet of Adana (q.v.).
CHORUM, the chief town of a sanjak of the Angora vilayet in Asia Minor, altitude 2300 ft., situated on the edge of a wide plain, almost equidistant from Amasia and Yuzgat.
They are divided into the Persian Nestorians of the plain of Azerbaijan, and the Turkish Nestorians, inhabiting chiefly the sanjak of Hakkiari in the vilayet of Van, who are subdivided into the Rayat or subject, and the Ashiret or tribal, the latter being semi-independent in their mountain fastnesses.
The modern town of Erbil or Arbil, in the vilayet of Mosul, is about 40 m.
BAYAZID, or Bajazet, a border fortress of Asiatic Turkey, chief town of a sanjak of the Erzerum vilayet, situated close to the frontiers of Russia and Persia, and looking across a marshy plain to the great cone of Ararat, at a general altitude of 6000 ft.
A good supply of drinking water was brought to the city by Fetid Pasha, who governed the vilayet ably for several years, till in 1903 he was appointed Grand Vizier.
(1) A vilayet in Asia Minor which includes the whole, or parts of, Pamphylia, Pisidia, Phrygia, Lycaonia, Cilicia and Cappadocia.
The vilayet is now traversed by the Anatolian railway, and contains the railhead of the Ottoman line from Smyrna.
SAMSUN (anc. Amisus), the chief town of the Janik sanjak of the Trebizond vilayet of Asiatic Turkey, situated on the S.
Skoplye), the capital of the vilayet of Kossovo, European Turkey; on the left bank of the river Vardar, and at the junction of the railways from Nish and Mitrovitza to Salonica.
The industries include dyeing, weaving, tanning and the manufacture of metal-work, wine and flour, but Uskiib is chiefly important as the commercial centre of the whole vilayet of Kossovo (q.v.).
GUMULJINA, or Gumurdjina, a town of European Turkey, in the vilayet of Adrianople.
KERBELA, or Meshed-Iiosain, a town of Asiatic Turkey, the capital of a sanjak of the Bagdad vilayet, situated on the extreme western edge of the alluvial river plain, about 60 m.
It was situated on the lower southern slopes of the Sultan Dagh, in the Konia vilayet of Asia Minor, on the right bank of a stream, the ancient Anthius, which flows into the Hoiran Geul.
MOSUL, a town of Mesopotamia, capital of a Turkish vilayet and sanjak of the same name, on the right bank of the Tigris, in 36° 35' N., 43° 3' E.
The Vilayet Of Mosul lies mainly east of the Tigris.
And capital of a sanjak in the vilayet of Adana.
Kush-Adasi), also known as New Ephesus, a well-protected harbour on the west coast of Asia Minor in the vilayet of Aidin, opposite Samos.
Ioannina; Turk Yanid; also written Janina, Jannina, and, according to its Albanian pronunciation, Yanina), the capital of the vilayet of Iannina, Albania, European Turkey.
DENIZLI (anc. Laodicea ad Lycum), chief town of a sanjak of the Aidin vilayet of Asia Minor, altitude 1167 ft.
ERZINGAN, or Erzinjan (Arsinga of the middle ages), the chief town of a sanjak in the Erzerum vilayet of Asiatic Turkey.
GHADAMES, GADAMES or Rhadames, a town in an oasis of the same name, in that part of the Sahara which forms part of the Turkish vilayet of Tripoli.
IZBARTA, or Sparta [anc. Baris], the chief town of the Hamid-abad sanjak of the Konia vilayet, in Asia Minor, well situated on the edge of a fertile plain at the foot of Aghlasun Dagh.