"The earth," he adds elsewhere, "especially if fresh, has a certain magnetism in it, by which it attracts the salt, power, or virtue (call it either) which gives it life, and is the logic of all the labor and stir we keep about it, to sustain us; all dungings and other sordid temperings being but the vicars succedaneous to this improvement."
The term is used in this general sense in certain rubrics of the English Book of Common Prayer, in which it is applied equally to rectors and vicars as to perpetual curates.
Henry established imperial vicars in the Lombard towns, confirming the tyrants, but gaining nothing for the empire in exchange for the titles he conferred.
The tyrants, as we have already seen, established themselves as captains of the people, vicars of the empire, vicars for the church, leaders of the Guelph and Ghibelline parties.
Rienzis revolution in Rome (3471354), and hi~ establishment of a republic upon a fantastic basis, half classical half feudal, proved the temper of the times; while the rise of dynastic families in the cities of the church, claiming the title of papal vicars, but acting in their own interests, Tb weakened the authority of the Holy See.
Abroad unsuccessful attempts were made by local councils to enact that officials and vicars-general should be in holy orders (Hefele on Councils of Tortosa in 1429 and Sixth of Milan in 1582).
The church of St Andrew is of unknown foundation, but the list of vicars is complete from 1223.
Formerly Brazil constituted an ecclesiastical province under the metropolitan jurisdiction of an archbishop residing at Bahia, with 11 suffragan bishops, 12 vicars-general and about 2000 curates.
For this purpose he obtained, after much difficulty, a papal brief emancipating the Dominicans of St Mark from the rule of the Lombard vicars of that order.
Certain homilies, accordingly, composed by dignitaries of the lower house, were in the following year produced by the prolocutor; and after some delay a volume was published in 1547 entitled Certain sermons or homilies appointed by the King's Majesty to be declared and read by all parsons, vicars, or curates every Sunday in their churches where they have cure.
They elected three Poles successively as generals, taking, however, only the title of vicars, till on the 7th of March 1801 Pius VII.
The Society has been ruled by twenty-five generals and four vicars from its foundation to the present day (1910).
They claimed that they, as vicars of Christ, had the right to interfere in the temporal concerns of princes, and even to depose sovereigns of whom they disapproved.
His musical duties are usually performed by the "succentor," one of the vicars choral.
From the 6th century onwards the apostolic vicars of Arles and Thessalonica were merely the titular holders of pontifical honours, with no real authority over those who were nominally under their jurisdiction.
To the former were attached two commissions, one for the approbation of those religious congregations which devote themselves to missions, which is now transferred to the Congregation of the Religious Orders; the other for the examination of the reports sent in by the bishops and vicars apostolic on their dioceses or missions.
Its use has never been confined to clerks in holy orders, and it has been worn since the Reformation by all the "ministers" (including vicars-choral and choristers) of cathedral and collegiate churches, as well as by the fellows and scholars of colleges in chapel.
In 1853 the Roman Catholic Church, which before had been a mission in the hands of papal legates and vicars, was raised into an independent ecclesiastical province with five dioceses, namely, the archbishopric of Utrecht, and the suffragan bishoprics of Haarlem, Breda, 's Hertogenbosch and Roermond, each with its own seminary.
In the early Church other bishops commonly described themselves as vicars of Christ (Du Cange gives an example as late as the 9th century from the capitularies of Charles the Bald); but there is no proof in their case, or indeed in that of " vicar of St Peter " given to the popes, that it was part of their formal style.
All bishops were looked upon as in some sort vicars of the pope, but the title vicarius sedis apostolicae came especially to be applied as an alternative to legatus sedis apostolicae to describe papal legates to whom in certain places the pope delegated a portion of his authority.
Tells us in his treatise De synodo dioecesana that the pope often names vicars-apostolic for the government of a particular diocese because the episcopal see is vacant or, being filled, the titular bishop cannot fulfil his functions.
The Roman Catholic Church in England was governed by vicars-apostolic from 1685 until 1850, when Pope Pius IX.
Vicars-apostolic at the present day are nearly always titular bishops taking their titles from places not acknowledging allegiance to the Roman Catholic Church.
It became early a custom for the prebendaries and canons of a cathedral to employ " priest-vicars " or " vicars-choral " as their substitutes when it was their turn as hebdomedary to sing High Mass and conduct divine office.
In the English Church these priest-vicars remain in the cathedrals of the old foundations as beneficed clergy on the foundation; in the cathedrals of the new foundation they are paid by the chapters.
" Lay vicars 'l also were and are employed to sing those parts of the office which can be sung by laymen.
The employment of such vicars was by no means general in the early Church, but towards the 13th century it became very general for a bishop to employ a vicar-general, often to curb the growing authority of the archdeacons.
In the middle ages there was not a very clear distinction drawn between the vicar and the official of the bishop. When the voluntary and contentious jurisdiction came to be distinguished, the former fell generally to the vicars, the latter to the officials.
In the style of the Roman chancery, official documents are addressed to the bishops or their vicars for dioceses beyond the Alps, but for French dioceses to the bishops or their officials.
The institution of vicars-general to help the bishops is now general in the Catholic Church, but it is not certain that a bishop is obliged to have such an official.
In the Roman Catholic Church bishops sometimes appoint lesser vicars to exercise a more limited authority over a limited district.
They are called " vicars-forane " or rural deans.
Formerly, and especially in England, many churches were appropriated to monasteries or colleges of canons, whose custom it was to appoint one of their own body to perform divine service in such churches, but in the 13th century such corporations were obliged to appoint permanent paid vicars who were called perpetual vicars.
Hence in England the distinction between rectors, who draw both the greater and lesser tithes, and vicars, who are attached to parishes of which the great tithes, formerly held by monasteries, are now drawn by lay rectors.
Three of the vicars-apostolic almost immediately warned all the faithful against the "use and reception" of his translation, on the ostensible ground that it had not been examined and approved by due ecclesiastical authority; and by his own bishop (Douglas) he was in 1793 suspended from the exercise of his orders in the London district.
In Ireland the Culdees of Armagh endured until the dissolution in 1541, and enjoyed a fleeting resurrection in 1627, soon after which their ancient property passed to the vicars choral of the cathedral.
At the head of this is the college of cardinals, who are the princes and senators of the Church, the counsellors of the pope, and his vicars in the functions of the pontificate.
The scattered communities of the Uniat Armenian Church in Russia are subordinate to Latin vicars apostolic. The Uniat Armenian Church in the Caucasus, however, is under the jurisdiction of the patri archate of Cilicia.
There are not more than 10,000 to 15,000 Uniat Bulgarians, who have been ruled since 1883 by three vicars apostolic. The Uniat Armenians and Melchites in Constantinople belong to the Eastern patriarchates.
Established in 1887 three special vicariates apostolic (Vicariates apostolici Syro-Malabarorum); the vicars apostolic are Latins, but have the right to pontificate and to confirm according to the Syrian rite.
2 It was officially adopted in the Relief Act of 1791 in place of the designation " Protesting Catholic Dissenters," to which the vicars apostolic objected.
Somewhat prolonged conflict between the Committee and the vicars apostolic, who for the most part represented the high ultramontane view.
This " papal aggression " caused great excitement at the time, and an Ecclesiastical Titles Act was passed in 1851, though never put in force, forbidding Roman Catholic prelates to assume territorial designations.5 2 They were described in the first draft of the bill as " Protesting Catholic Dissenters," but this was changed, in deference to the strenuous remonstrances of the vicars-apostolic, into " Roman Catholics."
The ecclesiastical organization includes one archbishop, who resides at Santiago, three bishops residing at La Serena, Concepcion and Ancud, and two vicars residing in Antofagasta and Tarapaca.
At the head of their organizations are vicars-apostolic for the Cape (eastern district), the Cape (western district), Natal, Orange River, Kimberley and the Transvaal, and prefects-apostolic for Basutoland and Zambezi (or Rhodesia).
There were 14,029 incumbents (rectors, vicars, and perpetual curates), 7500 curates, i.e.
The Colombian hierarchy consists of an archbishop, residing at Bogota, 10 bishops, 8 vicars-general, and 2170 priests.
The bishops registers of the diocese of Norwich show that many parishes had three and some four successive vicars admitted in eighteen months.
The bishops constitute the episcopal synod, the supreme court of appeal, 1 During the long period of proscription, the Roman Catholic Church in Scotland survived in scattered groups; after the Reformation it was at first under the jurisdiction of the English arch-priest, but from 1653 to 1694 it was governed by prefects apostolic and from 1694 to 1878 by vicars apostolic appointed by the pope.
At last, just as the kingdom had become the personal property of the king, so the officialsdukes, counts, royal vicars, tribunes, centenariiwho had for the most part bought their unpaid offices by means of presents to the monarch, came to look upon the public service rather as a mine of official wealth than as an administrative organization for furthering the interests, material or moral, of the whole nation.
In the middle ages a large number of rectories were held by religious houses, which drew the bulk of the tithes and appointed vicars to do the work.