When in 1866 the Second Plenary Council of Baltimore considered the matter of new diocesan developments, he was selected to organize the new Vicariate Apostolic of North Carolina; and was consecrated bishop in August 1868.
Towards the end of the 4th century, when southern Illyricum (Macedonia, Greece, Crete) was passing under the authority of the Eastern emperor, she tried to keep him within her ecclesiastical obedience by creating the vicariate of Thessalonica.
The missions begin by establishing apostolic prefectures under the charge of priests; the prefecture is later transformed into an apostolic vicariate, having at its head a bishop; finally, the hierarchy, i.e.
During his pontificate the dispute was settled between Cyril of Alexandria and John of Antioch, who had been at variance since the council of Ephesus, but he himself had some difficulties with Proclus of Constantinople with regard to the vicariate of Thessalonica.
The diocese of Newport (known till 1896 as Newport and Menevia) consists of the counties of Monmouth, Glamorgan and Hereford; whilst the remaining eleven counties were in 1895 formed into the Vicariate of Wales, which in 1898 was erected into a diocese under a bishop with the title of Menevia.
Under his vicariate trouble with Rome began, the pope insisting on his right as universal bishop to appoint the vicar-general's coadjutor and successor.
It was not, however, until the vicariate of Peter Codde, consecrated vicar-general with the title of bishop of Sebaste in partibus in 1669, that the quarrel came to a head.
In 1317, in execution of a bull of Clement V., the royal vicariate in Italy had been conferred by John on Robert of Anjou, and this appointment was renewed in 1322 and 1324, with threats of excommunication against any one who should seize the vicariate of Italy without the authorization of the pope.