A new vicarapostolic - John Leyburne, bishop of Adrumetum in partibus- was at once appointed (1685); three years later England was divided into four districts - the London, Midland, Northern and Western - each under a vicar-apostolic. This arrangement lasted till 1840, when the number of vicariates was doubled by the addition of the Welsh, Eastern, Lancashire and Yorkshire districts.
Increased the number of English vicariates-apostolic in 1839, and from 1840 onward, as vicar-apostolic first of the Midland and afterwards of the London district, he was mainly instrumental in bringing the English Roman Catholic Church into closer touch with " the spirit of Rome."
In February 1846 he left Oxford for Oscott, where Bishop Wiseman, then vicar-apostolic of the Midland district, resided; and in October he proceeded to Rome, where he was ordained priest and was given the degree of D.D.
In England from 1598 until the appointment of a vicar-apostolic in 1623 the Roman Catholic clergy were placed by the pope under an "archpriest" as superior of the English mission.
In 1784 the Rev. John Carroll was appointed prefect-apostolic for the Catholics of the English colonies hitherto dependent on the vicar-apostolic of London.
Wiseman was appointed temporarily vicar-apostolic of the London district, the appointment becoming permanent in February 1849.
The Roman Catholics, at whose head is a vicar-apostolic, numbered 10,419.
In 1840 he was consecrated bishop, and sent to England as coadjutor to Bishop Walsh, vicar-apostolic of the Central district, and was also appointed president of Oscott College near Birmingham.
In 1741 Challoner was raised to the episcopal dignity at Hammersmith, and nominated coadjutor with right of succession to Bishop Benjamin Petre, vicar-apostolic of the London district, whom he succeeded in 1758.
The seat of the general government of Indo-China, of the residentsuperior of Tongking, and of a bishop, who is vicar-apostolic of central Tongking.