Clover, lucerne and sainfoin make up the bulk of artificial pasturage, while vetches, crimson clover and cabbage are the other chief forage crops.
The temporary includes vetches, pulse, lupine, clover and trifolium; and the perennial, meadow-trefoil, lupinella, sulla (fledysarum coronarium), lucerne and darnel.
The Emilian region is one where regular rotations are best observeda common shift being grain, maize, clover, beans and vetches, &c., grain, which has the disadvantage of the grain crops succeeding, each other.
Lupine, beans, peas and vetches were grown for fodder, and meadows, often artificially watered, supplied hay.
Either let the land lie fallow every other year or else let spelt follow pulse, vetches or lupine.
In addition to the cereals, beans, peas and vetches were grown to some extent.
Rye, vetches, winter-oats or some other rapidly-growing crop may be sown in autumn and fed off or otherwise disposed of prior to the root-sowing.
Whatever the specific rotation, there may in practice be deviations from the plan of retaining on the farm the whole of the root-crops, the straw of the grain crops and the leguminous fodder crops (clover, vetches, sainfoin, &c.) for the production of meat or milk, and, coincidently, for that of manure to be returned to the land.
The plants most frequently used are white mustard, rape, buckwheat, spurry, rye, and several kinds of leguminous plants, especially vetches, lupins and serradella.
On the light, poor sands of Saxony Herr Schultz, of Lupitz, made use of serradella, yellow lupins and vetches as green manures for enriching the land in humus and nitrogen, and found the addition of potash salts and phosphates very profitable for the subsequent growth of potatoes and wheat.
To a less extent vetches are grown for the same purpose- -
The fellaheen can no longer eat bread; they are living on barley-meal mixed with water, and raw green stuff, vetches, &c. The taxation makes life almost impossible: a tax on every crop, on every animal first, and again when it is sold in the market; on every man, on charcoal, on butter, on salt..
The staple crop is barley, but wheat, lentils, vetches, flax and gourds are also cultivated.
That the Leguminosae (a group of plants including peas, beans, vetches, lupins, &c.) play a special part in agriculture was known even to the ancients and was mentioned by Pliny (Historia Naturalis, viii.).