A few experimenters have carried the verification much further.
Messerschmidt, editor of the best collection of Hittite texts up to date, made a tabula rasa of all systems of decipherment, asserting that only one sign out of two hundred the bisected oval, determinative of divinity - had been interpreted with any certainty; and in view of this opinion, coupled with the steady refusal of historians to apply the results of any Hittite decipherment, and the obvious lack of satisfactory verification, without which the piling of hypothesis on hypothesis may only lead further from probability, there is no choice but to suspend judgment for some time longer as to the inscriptions and all deductions drawn from them.
In the department of abdominal disease progress has been made, not only in this enormous extension of means of cure by operative methods, but also in the verification of diagnosis.
The tax on property in mortmain, dues for the verification of weights and measures, the tax on royalties from mines, on horses, mules and carriages, on cycles, &c.
In one case the hysteresis loss per cubic centimetre per cycle was 16,100 ergs for B =1 5,900, and only 1200 ergs for B = 20,200, the highest induction obtained in the experiment; possibly it would have vanished before B had reached 21,000.2 These experiments prove that actual friction must be almost entirely absent, and, as Baily remarks, the agreement of the results with the previously suggested deduction affords a strong verification of Ewing's form of the molecular theory.
The possibility of in the verification established verification as a habit; and the -collecting of things, instead of the accumulating of reports, developed a new faculty of minute observation.
His system, however, like all others, is built in the main upon hypotheses incapable at present of quite satisfactory verification, such, for example, as the conjectural reading " Gargamish " for a group of symbols which recurs in inscriptions from Jerablus and elsewhere.
Hull; some months earlier Lebedew had published in the Annalen der Physik a verification for metallic vanes so thin as to avoid the gasaction, by preventing the production of sensible difference of temperature between the two faces by the incident radiation.
It carries the war into the camp of the enemy by seeking to demonstrate that the completely determined action which is set over against freedom as the basis of explanation in the material world is merely a hypothesis which, while it serves sufficiently well the limited purpose for which it is devised, is incapable of verification in the ultimate constituents of physical nature.
In this place it must suffice to indicate the gist of the more recent developments of the electro-optical theory, which involve the dynamical verification of Fresnel's hypothesis regarding optical convection and the other relations above described.
The prophets themselves required no historical verification of their word to assure them that it was indeed the word of God, nor do they for a moment admit that their contemporaries are entitled to treat its authority as unproved till such verification is offered.
In the verification of a precise standard of length there may be taken into account the influence of the variation of atmospheric pressure.
-- The necessary local inspection and verification of weights and measures in use for trade (as distinct from the verbal and written use of weights and measures) is in the United Kingdom undertaken by inspectors of weights and measures, who are appointed by the local authorities, as the county and borough councils.
For some engineering purposes it would appear to be desirable to produce master-screws to an accuracy of (1/2000)th of an inch to the foot of screw, so as to serve indirectly for the verification of "guiding screws" for general use in workshops.
The experimental verification of the change of wave-length due to a source moving in the line of sight has been realized in the laboratory by A.
(Regulations, Birmingham, Glascow, London, Manchester &c.) In Europe the local inspection is generally carried out through the State, and a uniform system of local verification is thereby maintained.
He, moreover, sought in the events of his own life a verification of the theory of planetary influences; and it is to this practice that we owe the summary record of each year's occurrences which, continued almost to his death, affords for his biography a slight but sure foundation.
The Author Of The System Adopted By Gregory Was Aloysius Lilius, Or Luigi Lilioghiraldi, A Learned Astronomer And Physician Of Naples, Who Died, However, Before Its Introduction; But The Individual Who Most Contributed To Give The Ecclesiastical Calendar Its Present Form, And Who Was Charged With All The Calculations Necessary For Its Verification, Was Clavius, By Whom It Was Completely Developed And Explained In A Great Folio Treatise Of 800 Pages, Published In 1603, The Title Of Which Is Given At The End Of This Article.
Equations of this form have received a striking observational verification in so far as they predict a tail or root towards which the lines ultimately tend when s is increased indefinitely.
Or, again, the memory might be confused by this variety, and the verification of quotations, especially of brief ones, was difficult, not only from the comparative scarcity of the copies of books, but also because ancient books were not provided with ready means of reference to particular passages.
The theory depends for its verification and application upon the fact that forces can be identified and classified.
Newton's law of gravitation affords the most notable example of the process of verification of a law of force, and incidentally of the Galileo-Newton theory.
The verification is sufficiently exact to establish the law of gravitation, as providing a statement of the motions of the bodies composing the solar system which is correct to a high degree of accuracy.
It should be noticed that the verification was begun without any data as to the masses of the celestial bodies, these being selected and adjusted to fit the observations.
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It teaches us that scientific method is sometimes induction, sometimes deduction, and sometimes the consilience of both, either by the inductive verification of previous deductions, or by the deductive explanation of previous inductions.
It is noticeable that Wundt quotes Newton's discovery of the centripetal force of the planets to the sun as an instance of this supposed hypothetical, analytic, inductive method; as if Newton's analysis were a hypothesis of the centripetal force to the sun, a deduction of the given facts of planetary motion, and a verification of the hypothesis by the given facts, and as if such a process of hypothetical deduction could be identical with either analysis or induction.
Or rather, there are two uses of induction: inductive discovery before deduction, and inductive verification after deduction.
The positive procedure by hypothesis and verification is rejected by Bacon, who thinks of hypothesis as the will o' the wisp of science, and prefers the cumbrous machinery of negative reasoning.
In especial he showed clear understanding of the functions of hypothesis and verification in the investigations of the solitary worker, with his facts still in course of accumulation and needing to be lighted up by the scientific imagination.
Such a religion appeals for its self-verification not to its agreement with cosmological conceptions, either ancient or modern, or with theories of philosophy, however true these may be, but to the moral sense of man.
It is to be noticed, moreover, that all available tests apply only to the scheme as a whole; owing to the complexity of phenomena we cannot submit any one of its postulates to verification apart from the rest.
There was no charge for Fred, though the counter girl, with a wink at Dean, asked for age verification, telling Fred he didn't look a day over sixty.
The preceding considerations render it comparatively easy to follow the reasoning on which the experimental verification of the EgaJva- above statements is based.
The verification of Kohlrausch's theory of ionic velocity verifies also the view of electrolysis which regards the electric current as due to streams of ions moving in opposite directions through the liquid and carrying their opposite electric charges with them.
In such minor matters as arrangement of notes and verification of citations the court found against Dana, but in the main Dana's notes were vastly different from Lawrence's.
Hippocrates had no opportunity of verification by necropsy, and Sydenham ignored pathology; yet the clinical features of many but recently described diseases, such, for example, as that named after Graves, and myxoedema, both associated with perversions of the thyroid gland, lay as open to the eye of physicians in the past as to our own.
Thus it was, partly because the habit of acceptance of authority, waning but far from extirpated, dictated to the clinical observer what he should see; partly because the eye of the clinical observer lacked that special training which the habit and influence of experimental verification alone can give, that physicians, even acute and practised physicians, failed to see many and many a symptomatic series which went through its evolutions conspicuously enough, and needed for its appreciation no unknown aids or methods of research, nor any further advances of pathology.
At the risk no doubt of some defects of culture, the newer education cleared the way for a more positive temper, awoke a new sense of accuracy and of verification, and created a sceptical attitude towards all conventions, whether of argument or of practice.
Logical Of course the first step was to approach the phenomena of human character and social existence with the expectation of finding them as reducible to general laws as the other phenomena of the universe, and with the hope of exploring these laws by the same instruments of observation and verification as had done such triumphant work in the case of the latter.
Not only were the bracing bars designed to calculated stresses, and the continuity of the girders taken into account, but the validity of the calculations was tested by a verification on the actual bridge of the position of the points of contrary flexure of the centre span.
In the verification of weights and measures a margin of error is permitted to manufacturers and scale-makers, as it is found to be impossible to make two weights, or two measures, so identical that between them some difference may not be found either by the balance or the microscope.
Although even good membranes of copper ferrocyanide are rarely perfectly semi-permeable, and in other membranes such as indiarubber, &c., which have been used, the defects from the theoretical values of the equilibrium pressure are very great, yet, in the light of the exact verification of theory given by the experiments described above, it is evident that such failures to reach the limiting value in no wise invalidate the theory of osmotic equilibrium.
The work excited a good deal of surprise as well as attention; and with characteristic thoroughness and love of truth the author went abroad to collect materials for the verification and more exhaustive treatment of his views.
His will to believe merely recognizes that choice is necessary and implies risk, and puts him in a position to obtain verification (or disproof).
Scientific and religious verification therefore, though superficially distinct, are alike in kind.
Yet, in falling back, with a difference, upon the atomism of Democritus, Epicurus had to face some questions of logic. In the inference from phenomena to further phenomena positive verification must be insisted on.
It is evident that if our experiments are solely directed to the verification of this law, they should, if possible; be carried out in a hermetically closed vessel, the vessel and its contents being weighed before and after the chemical change.
Coulomb has made his name for ever famous by his invention and application of his torsion balance to the experimental verification of the fundamental law of electric attraction, in which, however, he was anticipated by Cavendish, namely, that the force of attraction between two small electrified spherical bodies varies as the product of their charges and inversely as the square of the distance of their centres.
He said nothing more, as if unwilling to say more until the identity verification was done.
Another verification may be obtained from the phenomena of vapour pressure.
It is interesting to find that, with all this activity in the present reformed methods of research and verification are not confined to the work of the passing day; in the brilliant achievements of modern research and reconstruction the maxim that "Truth is the daughter of Time" has not been forgotten.
The method also renders comparatively easy the verification of the results of certain selected parts.
He left the task of verification largely to Wood.
The most fundamental experimental confirmation that the theory of the aether has received on the optical side in recent years has been the verification of Maxwell's proposition that radiation exerts mechanical force on a material system, on which it falls, which may be represented in all cases as the resultant of pressures operating along the rays, and of intensity equal at each point of free space to the density of radiant energy.