BESANON - - Verdun, Bellay, St Die, Nancy.
On the side of Belgium the danger of irruption through neutral territory, which has for many years been foreseen, is provided against by the fortresses of Lille, Valenciennes and Maubeuge, but (with a view to tempting the Germans to attack through Luxemburg, as is stated by German authorities) the frontier between Maubeuge and Verdun is left practically undefended.
In the triple partition of the Carolingian empire at Verdun in 843, the central portion was assigned to the emperor Lothaire, separating the kingdoms of East Francia (the later The duchy Germany) from West Francia (the later France).
Godfrey of Verdun was invested by him with the government of Lower Lorraine (Nieder-LOthringen).
The kingdom of Italy, transmitted on his death by Charles the Great, and afterwards Confirmed to his grandson Lotbar by the peace of Verdun in 843, stretched from the Alps to Terracina.
Far more extensive was the territory under the spiritual authority of the archbishop which included the bishoprics of Metz, Toul and Verdun, and after 1777 also those of Nancy and St Die.
There is a statue to Commandant Beaurepaire, who, in 1792, killed himself rather than surrender Verdun to the Prussians.
By the treaty of Verdun in 843 it fell to Louis the German, and later it seems to have been partly in the duchy of Saxony and partly in that of Franconia.
The prototype of the historico-literary periodical may be discovered in La Clef du cabinet des princes de l'Europe (1704-1706), familiarly known as Journal de Verdun, and carried on under various titles down to 1794.
Under the Roman emperors Metz was connected by military roads with Toul, Langres, Lyons, Strassburg, Verdun, Reims and Trier.
At the peace of Westphalia in 1648 Metz, with Toul and Verdun, was formally ceded to France, in whose possession it remained for upwards of two centuries.
So far, however, from being ahead of the Germans on the road to Verdun, the French were actually, late in the afternoon of the 15th of August, bivouacked on the plateau of Rezonville, and there their outposts were placed, not where they could see the surrounding country, but at the regulation distances of 600 to loon paces from the bivouacs.
Scrub and woods with dense undergrowth line both its banks, and, except by the great chaussee from Metz to Verdun, access to the French side becomes impossible to troops in ordered bodies.
Both corps took as their primary objective the farms of St Hubert and Point du Jour, standing just above the defile made by the Verdun-Metz road where it climbs out of the Mance ravine towards the French position.
Efforts to make peace were begun, and in June 842 the brothers met on an island in the Saone, and agreed to an arrangement which developed, after much difficulty and delay, into the treaty of Verdun signed in August 843.
He took an active part in the levee-en-masse, and in November 1793 was given the task of establishing the revolutionary government in the departments of Meuse and Moselle, where he gained an unenviable notoriety by ordering the execution of the sentence of death decreed by the revolutionary tribunal on some young girls at Verdun who had offered flowers to the Prussians when they entered the town.
Appointed sub-prefect of Avesnes during the Hundred Days, he was imprisoned by the Prussians in revenge for the death of the maidens of Verdun, and lived in exile during the Restoration.
By the treaty of Verdun in 843 Saxony fell to Louis the German, but he paid little attention to the northern part of his kingdom which was harassed by the Normans and the Sla y s.
At the division of the empire of Charlemagne between the three sons of Louis the Debonnaire, effected by the pact of Verdun in 843, the forest had become a district and is called therein pagus Arduensis.
In the 10th century the district had become a comitatus, subject to the powerful count of Verdun, who changed his style to that of count of Ardenne.
In June 842 the three brothers met on an island in the Saone to negotiate a peace, and each appointed forty representatives to arrange the boundaries of their respective kingdoms. This developed into the treaty of Verdun concluded in August 843, by which Louis received the bulk of the lands of the Carolingian empire lying east of the Rhine, together with a district around Spires, Worms and Mainz, on the left bank of the river.
Among the points of interest within it are the old chapel of 1318, with Leopold's tomb and the altar of Verdun, dating from the 12th century, the treasury and relic-chamber, the library with 30,000 volumes and many MSS., the picture gallery, the collection of coins, the theological hall, and the winecellar, containing an immense tun like that at Heidelberg.
See, for information specially relating to the whole subject, the Abbe Desgodin's Mission du Thibet de 1855 a 1870 (Verdun, 1872); and "Account of the Pundit's Journey in Great Tibet," in the Royal Geographical Society's Journal for 1877.
The war was brought to an end by the treaty of Verdun (August 843),which gave to Charles the Bald the kingdom of the western Franks, which practically corresponded with what 1 For Charles I., Roman emperor, see Charlemagne; cf.
Calmette, La Diplomatie carolingienne du traite de Verdun a la mort de Charles le Chauve (Paris, 1901), and F.
Important as is the treaty of Verdun in German history, that of Mersen, by which Louis and Charles the Bald settled in 870 their dispute over the kingdom of Lothair, second son Louis the of the emperor Lothair I., is still more important.
Up to this time the possession of Metz, Toul and Verdun by France had never been officially recognized; now these bishoprics were formally conceded to her.
The leaders, moreover, of the monkish reform movement in the 10th and 11th centuries, Richard of St Vanne in Verdun and Poppo, abbot of Stavelot (978-1048), had seen the Holy Land with their own eyes (Vita Rich.
In 843, by the treaty of Verdun, it became part of Lotharingia (Lorraine), and in 879 was annexed to the kingdom of East Francia (Germany) by the treaty of Meerssen.
The fortifications of Epinal are connected to the southward with Belfort, Dijon and Besancon, by the fortified line of the Moselle, and north of it lies the unfortified zone called the Trouee d'Epinal, a gap designedly left open to the invaders between Epinal and Toul, another great fortress which is itself connected by the Meuse forts d'arret with Verdun and the places of the north-east.
Balue thereupon joined Guillaume de Harancourt, bishop of Verdun, in an intrigue to induce Charles of France to demand Champagne and Brie in accordance with the king's promise to Charles the Bold, instead of distant Guienne where the king was determined to place him.
Falkenhayn's refusal to join in the enterprise was based on various grounds; his belief in the prospects of success at Verdun; his anxiety regarding the Russian front, and, probably, the idea that a formal state of war between Germany and Italy might still be avoided.
The principal towns on the Meuse are: in France, Verdun, Sedan, Mezieres and Givet; in Belgium, Dinant, Namur, Huy, Liege and Maeseyck; in Holland, Maestricht, Roermond, Venlo, Dordrecht and Rotterdam.
JACQUES SIRMOND (1559-1651), French scholar and Jesuit, was born at Riom, Auvergne, on the 12th or the 22nd of October 1 559 He was educated at the Jesuit College of Billom; having been a novice at Verdun and then at Pont-à-Mousson, he entered into the order on the 26th of July 1576.
Early in March 1792 he was elected lieutenant-colonel of one of the battalions of the Eure-et-Loire; he took part in the defence of Verdun in 1792, and it fell to his lot to bear the proposals of capitulation to the Prussian camp. The spiritless conduct of the defenders excited the wrath of the revolutionary authorities, and Marceau was fortunate in escaping arrest and finding re-employment as a captain in the regular service.
To Poland and Prussia; he was consecrated bishop of Verdun in 1253, and two years later was translated to the patriarchate of Jerusalem.
After the treaty of Verdun in 843 it became the centre of the East Frankish or German kingdom, and in theory remained so for a long period, and was for a time the most important of the duchies which arose on the ruins of the Carolingian empire.
Verdun was invested and seemed likely to fall.
An amicable division of the imperial succession was arranged, and after an assessment of the empire which took almost a year, an agreement was signed at Verdun in August 843.
The partition of Verdun separated once more, and definitively, the lands of the eastern and western Franks.
However, asthe boundary between the possessions of Charles the Bald and those of Louis was not strictly defined, and as Lothairs kingdom, having no national basis, soon disintegrated into the kingdoms of Italy, Burgundy and Arles, in Lotharingia, this great undefined territory was to serve as a tilting-ground for France and Germany on the very morrow of the treaty of Verdun and for ten centuries after.
At the partition treaty of Verdun (843) Frisia became part of Lotharingia or Lorraine; at the treaty of Mersen (870) it was divided between the kingdoms of the East Franks (Austrasia) and the West Franks (Westrasia); in 880 the whole country was united to Austrasia; in 911 it fell under the dominion of Charles the Simple, king of the West Franks, but the districts of East Frisia asserted their independence and for a long time governed themselves after a very simple democratic fashion.