The chief varieties of haemorrhage are arterial, venous and capillary.
VS, Ventral venous sinus.
The heart has a pair of venous ostia, often blending into one, and an anterior arterial aorta.
The right and left halves are completely divided by septa, no mixture of the venous and arterial blood being possible, an advance upon reptilian conditions, even the highest.
It receives the three great venous trunks of the body, namely the vena cava superior dextra, the vena cava superior sinistra more dorsally, and the vena cava inferior more to the right and below; the opening of the last is guarded by two prominent valves in place of the mammalian valvula Eustachii.
The thawing is associated with much pain, and in the case of the hand or foot this may be diminished by raising the part, so as to help the return of the venous blood to the heart.
In Scorpio the completion of the horizontal plate by oblique flaps, so as to form an actual diaphragm shutting off the cavity of the prosoma from the rest of the body, possibly gives to the organs contained in the anterior chamber a physiological advantage in respect of the supply of arterial blood and its separation from the venous blood of the mesosoma.
(After Lankester and Boerne from Parker and Haswell's Textbook of Zoology, Macmillan & Co.) these open into irregular swollen vessels which are the veins or venous sinuses.
An arrangement of great functional importance in regard to the venous system must now be described, which was shown in 1883 by Lankester to be common to Limulus and Scorpio.
The blood is brought to the respiratory organs in both cases by a great venous collecting sinus having a ventral median position.
The drug is largely employed in cases of Bright's disease and dropsy from any cause, being especially useful when the liver shares in the general venous congestion.
There is hardly any increase in the intestinal secretion, the drug being emphatically not a hydragogue cathartic. There is no doubt that its habitual use may be a factor in the formation of haemorrhoids; as in the case of all drugs that act powerfully on the lower part of the intestine, without simultaneously lowering the venous pressure by causing increase of secretion from the bowel.
These processes are hollow, and receive the venous blood from, and return it again aerated into, the hollow axis, in which an afferent and an efferent blood-vessel may be differentiated.
The blood makes its way by large veins to a venous sinus which lies in the middle line below the heart, having the paired renal organs (nephridia) placed between it and that organ.
The ramifications of the arteries convey the blood to all parts of the body, and it finally reaches the venous sinuses, the chief of which are the pedal, the pallial and the median-ventral.
The venous blood is conducted from the tissues to a large sinus on either side above the pallial groove, and from this sinus passes to the gills by an afferent vessel in each gill on the internal or pedal margin of the axis.
This dilatation may be increased by local warmth, and poultices or fomentations are commonly applied to inflamed parts; recently suction apparatus has been used for the same purpose or ligature so as to cause venous stasis (Bier's treatment).
In both animals the wall of the pericardial sinus is connected by vertical muscular bands to the wall of the ventral venous sinus (its lateral expansions around the lung-books in Scorpio) in each somite through which the pericardium passes.
Dropsy of the serous cavities is very commonly merely part of a general anasarca, although occasionally it may be, as in the case of ascites, the sequel to an obstruction in the venous return.
In heart disease the chief work of the latter half of the 19th century was, in the first quarter, such clinical work as that of William Stokes and Peter Mere Latham (1789-1875); and in the second quarter the fuller comprehension of the vascular system, central and peripheral, with its cycles and variations of blood pressure, venous and arterial.
The respiratory rhythm is less frequent and the breathing less deep; the heart-beat is less frequent; the secretions are less copious; the pupil is narrow; in the brain there exists arterial anaemia with venous congestion, so that the blood-flow there is less than in the waking state.