Next to the Roman Uniats (whom they term Rassen or Venal) they most hate the Nestorian Syrians of Persia.
As a matter of fact, no man was more free or outspoken in his criticism of the policy of his employers than this apparently venal writer.
The practice of pulling down the ancient monuments to be used as building material, which was connived at by venal officials, was strictly prohibited.
For some time the history of the gaekwars was very much the same as that of most territorial houses in India: an occasional able minister, more rarely an able prince; but, on the other hand, a long dreary list of incompetent heads, venal advisers and taskmasters oppressive to the people.
At their worst, even with venal examiners (and additional fees were often offered as a bribe), Rashdall regards these examinations (at the end of the 13th century) as probably " less of a farce than the pass examinations of Oxford and Cambridge almost within the memory of persons now living."
Dryden, while compelled to honour him as an upright judge, overwhelmed his memory with scathing, if venal, satire; and Dryden's satire has been accepted as truth by later historians.
During the 140 days of his imprisonment there he wrote the marvellous Iambes (in alternate lines of 12 and 8 syllables), which hiss and stab like poisoned bullets, and which were transmitted to his family by a venal gaoler.
Procopius complains that he and Tribonian were always repealing old laws and enacting new ones, and accuses them of venal motives for doing so.
Naukratis in the Egyptian Delta was famous under the Ptolemies for its brilliant venal women.
He won his cause; but in the eyes of all posterity he justified the reproaches of his contemporaries, who describe him as a cruel, venal, grasping seeker after power, eager to support a despotism for the sake of honours, offices and emoluments secured for himself by a bargain with the oppressors of his country.
A few half-hearted campaigns against recalcitrant vassals and a long and obstinate quarrel with the papacy over his adulterous union with Bertrade de Montfort, countess of Anjou, represented the total activity of Philips reign; he was greedy and venal, by no means disdaining the petty profits of brigandage, and he never left his own domains.
These men had been alternately bitter enemies and allies of Beaton; in 1543 Kirkcaldy of Grange and the master of Rothes were offering their venal daggers to England, through a Scot named Wishart.