The Pasargadian kings of Anshan were vassals of the Median empire.
A strong check was thus imposed upon the tendency of freemen to become the vassals of great lords.
The Leiden magistrates said in 1581:" If we accept everything determined upon in the synod, we shall end by being vassals of the synod.
It should also here be noticed that the changes introduced into the holding of the fiefs, whether by altering their boundaries or substituting Frankish for Lombard vassals, were chief among the causes why the feudal system took no permanent hold in Italy.
Thus the titular king of Italy found himself simultaneously at war with those great vassals who had chosen him from their own class, with the turbulent factions of the Roman aristocracy, with unruly bishops in the growing cities and with the multitude of minor counts and barons who occupied the open lands, and who changed sides according to the interests of the moment.
He further broke the power of the great vassals by redivisions of their feuds, and by the creation of ~iew marches which he assigned to his German followers.
But before this event John had instituted a great inquiry, the inquest of service of June 1212, for the purpose of finding out how much he could exact from each of his vassals, a measure which naturally excited some alarm; and then, fearing a baronial rising, he had abandoned his proposed expedition into Wales, had taken hostages from the most prominent of his foes, and had sought safety in London.
The greater part of the territory was formally incorporated into the empire, and the petty potentates, such as the khan of Khiva and the amir of Bokhara, who were allowed to retain a semblance of their former sovereignty, became obsequious vassals of the White Tsar.
(1281), who recommenced persecuting the Ghibellines, excommunicated the Greek emperor, Michael Palaeologus, proclaimed a crusade against the Greeks, filled every appointment in the papal states with Charles's vassals, and reappointed the Angevin king senator of Rome.
Small native princes ruled as vassals of Egypt which, after expelling the Hyksos from its borders, had entered upon a series of conquests as far as the Euphrates.
The ultimate result was that in 1454 an embassy of the League offered Prussia to the Polish king, and that, after many years of war, the Peace of Thorn (1466) gave to Poland West Prussia, with Marienburg, Thorn, Danzig and other towns, in full possession, and, while leaving East Prussia to the Order, made the Order the vassals of Poland for the territory which it retained.
From 1466 to 1526 grand masters of the Order ruled in East Prussia as vassals of Poland.
Even so, Prussia was bereft of half of her territories; those west of the river Elbe went to swell the domains of Napoleon's vassals or to form the new kingdom of Westphalia for Jerome Bonaparte; while the spoils which the House of Hohenzollern had won from Poland in the second and third partitions were now to form the duchy of Warsaw, ruled over by Napoleon's ally, the elector (now king) of Saxony.
Indeed, by his assise sur la ligece, attempted to reach the vassals of his vassals; he admitted arriere-vassaux to the haute tour, and encouraged them to carry their cases to it in the first instance.
In 1225 Frederick married Isabella, and immediately after the marriage he assumed the title of king in right of his wife, and exacted homage from the vassals of the kingdom.'
It dates unquestionably from a period when the Frankish authority was very strong in Bavaria, when the dukes were vassals of the Frankish kings.
From 1299 to 1322 the country was ruled by the Croatian princes, Paul and Mladen Subic, who, though vassals of Hungary, reunited the provinces of Upper and Lower Bosnia, created by the Hungarians in order to prevent the growth of a dangerous national unity.
Edward the Confessor gave the manor to the church of Winchester in 1042, and it remained with the prior and convent of St Swithin until the 13th century, when it passed by exchange to Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester, though the vassals of the prior and convent remained exempt from dues and tronage in the port.
- The process by which the official counts were transformed into feudal vassals almost independent is described in the article Feudalism.
In the oldest register of Philip Augustus counts are reckoned with dukes in the first of the five orders into which the nobles are divided, but the list includes, besides such almost sovereign rulers as the counts of Flanders and Champagne, immediate vassals of much less importance - such as the counts of Soissons and Dammartin - and even one mediate vassal, the count of Bar-sur-Seine.
It was the general opinion abroad that the Magyars would either relapse into heathendom, or become the vassals of the Holy Roman Empire, and this opinion was reflected in the increasingly hostile attitude of the popes towards the Arpad kings.
The Zulu asserted that the Swazis were their vassals and denied their right to part with the territory.
His son and successor was Dungi, whose reign lasted more than 51 years, and among whose vassals was Gudea, the patesi or high-priest of Lagash.
After his death, the Assyrians, who were still nominally the vassals of Babylonia, threw off neser L - g n a ll disguise, and Shalmaneser I.
Under the English rule the counts of Armagnac were turbulent and untrustworthy vassals; and the administration of the Black Prince, tending to favour the towns of Aquitaine at the expense of the nobles, drove them to the side of France.
His vassals, however, showed themselves determined to support him in his struggle against the avengers of the duke of Orleans.
A knight might hold directly of the king, a count of a viscount, a bishop of an abbot, or the king himself of one of his own vassals, or even of a vassal's vassal, and in return his vassal's vassal might hold another fief directly of him.
This was particularly the case in parts of France and Germany where feudalism continued to regulate the property relations of lords and vassals longer than elsewhere, and where the underlying economic feudalism remained in large part unchanged.
According to Jordanes (the epitomator of Cassiodorus's History of the Goths) at the funeral of Attila his vassals, as they rode round the corpse, sang of his glorious deeds.
From the Fatimites it passed into the possession of the Beni-Yala, of the Beni-Ifren branch of the Zenata Berbers, who held it as vassals of the Omayyad rulers of Spain.
The bishops, in their turn, had to exercise their temporal rights through lay vassals, of whom the most powerful in the course of the 12th century were the lords of Andechs, near Munich.
But in the histories of the wars with his vassals he is often little more than a tyrannical dotard, who is made to submit to gross insult.
The wars of Charlemagne with his vassals are described in Girart de Roussillon, Renaus de Montauban, recounting the deeds of the four sons of Aymon, Huon de Bordeaux, and in the latter part of the Chevalerie Ogier, which belong properly to the cycle connected with Doon of Mayence.
Geoffrey the Handsome, with his indefatigable energy, was eminently fitted to suppress the coalitions of his vassals, the most formidable of which was formed in 1129.
Boni was once the most powerful state of Celebes, all the other princes being regarded as vassals of its ruler, but its history is not known in detail.
In 1131 the king led an expedition into Denmark, where one of his vassals had been murdered by Magnus, son of the Danish king, Niels, and where general confusion reigned; but no resistance was offered, and Niels promised to pay tribute to Lothair.
The emperor seconded the efforts of his vassals, Albert the Bear, margrave of the Saxon north mark, and Conrad I., margrave of Meissen and Lusatia, to extend the authority of the Germans in the districts east of the Elbe, and assisted Norbert, archbishop of Magdeburg, and Albert I., archbishop of Bremen, to spread Christianity.
Farther south came the turn of Ascalon, Lachish and Libnah; Judah under " Hezekiah suffered severely, and its western cities were transferred to the faithful vassals of Ekron, Ashdod and Gaza.
In the 7th century Gaza, Ascalon, Ashdod and Ekron were Assyrian vassals, together with Judah, Moab and Edom - in all, twenty-two kings of the " Hittites " - and the discovery of Assyrian contract-tablets at Gezer (c. 650) may indicate the presence of Assyrian garrisons.
But the Babylonian Empire followed upon traditional lines and thrust back Egypt, and Nabonidus (553 B.C.) claims his vassals as far as Gaza.
As he was not a great baron with a body of vassals at his command, he put himself at the head of a band of adventurers, and fought on the side of Charles and of France.
In 1180, however, he was placed under the imperial ban and Saxony was broken up. Henry retained Brunswick and Luneburg; Westphalia, as the western portion of the duchy was called, was given to Philip, archbishop of Cologne, and a large part of the land was divided among nine bishops and a number of counts who thus became immediate vassals of the emperor.
The prince of Wales's voyage to India in the winter of 1875-76 had brought the heir to the throne into personal relationship with the great Indian vassals of the British crown, and it was felt that a further demonstration of the queen's interest in her magnificent dependency would confirm their loyalty.
The Grave (1323-1349) consolidated the power of his dynasty against rebellious vassals and the neighbouring counts of Weimar and Schwarzburg.
In Surakarta and Jokjakarta in Java, and in many parts of the Outposts, native princes preserve their positions as vassals; they have limited power, and act generally under the supervision of a Dutch official.
At the enfeoffments of 1072 and 1002 no great undivided fiefs were created, and the mixed Norman, French and Italian vassals owed their benefices to the count.
From 1028 onwards it was ruled by local counts, the vassals of the bishops, but after Tirol fell into the hands of the Habsburgers (1363) their power grew at the expense of that of the bishops.
While other vassals might hold of a graduated hierarchy of overlords up to the crown, the burgess always held directly of the sovereign.
Below the king was a numerous and powerful class of nobles, the highest of whom (tlatoani) were great vassals owing little more than homage and tribute to their feudal lord, while the natural result of the unruliness of the noble class was that the king to keep them in check increased their numbers, brought them to the capital as councillors, and balanced their influence by military and household officers, and by a rich and powerful merchant class.
Nur-ed-din's vassals rebelled against his youthful heir, es-Salih, and Saladin came north, nominally to his assistance.
Thither Assur-bani-pal brought the rebel Egyptian vassals Necho and Sharru-ludari, the Elamite kings, the booty and captives of his continual conquests.
After some years of desultory fighting de Courci established his power over that part of Ulster comprised in the modern counties of Antrim and Down, throughout which he built a number of castles, where his vassals, known as "the barons of Ulster," held sway over the native tribes.
But they have been much subdivided, and the vassals may by law redeem them.
Andresen (Heilbronn, 1879), that Taillefer went before the Norman army singing of Charlemagne and of Roland and the vassals who died at Roncevaux, has been considered important in demonstrating the existence of a comparatively early tradition and song of Roland.
From his tenth year, when he was kidnapped from his father's court by the rebellious vassals, till his assassination eighteen years later, his whole life, with one bright interval of military glory, was unrelieved tragedy.
And obligations had no place, and it was seen that the volunteers who flocked to the standards of the various commanders were not less but even more efficient in the field than the vassals they had hitherto been accustomed to lead.
The tyranny of these nobles drove the peasantry and smaller vassals to seek the protection for life and property, the equality of taxation and of justice, which could be found only inside the walled city and under the rule of the archbishop. Thus Milan grew populous, and learned to govern itself.
A part of Elam (Susiana), where they ruled as vassals of the Median kings, until Cyrus the Great in 550 B.C. founded the Persian empire.
Reversing his fathers policy, Otto resolved that the dukes should act in the strictest sense as his vassals, or lose their dignities.
For the time, feudalism in truth meant that lands and offices were held on condition of service; the kinf was the genuine ruler, not only of freemen, but of the highest vassals in the nation.
But the attention of the French kings was concentrated on their immediate interests, and in course of time they brought their unruly vassals to order.
If she ever failed to get what she wanted, it was because of her inability to make the vassals of her household understand what it was.
Not only did pupils flock to Tosa from many quarters, attracted alike by the novelty of Itagaki's doctrines, by his eloquence and by his transparent sincerity, but also similar schools sprang up among the former vassals of other fiefs, who saw themselves excluded from the government.