After his defeat of Valerian in A.D.
The choice was left to the senate, who unanimously selected Valerian (afterwards emperor).
But Valerian, well aware of the dangers and difficulties attaching to the office at such a time, declined the responsibility.
The same authorities recommend a powder, composed of larvicide (an aniline substance), chrysanthemum flowers, and valerian root, to be burnt in bedrooms. Anointing the skin with strong-smelling substances is of little use in the open air, but more effective in the house; turpentine appears to be the best.
The De prelates of Valerian is concerned with secular princes, and even as late as the 14th century the title was occasionally applied to secular magistrates.
He died, probably in the year 254 (consequently under Valerian), at Tyre, where his grave was still shown in the middle ages.
258, in the reign of Valerian (NSI.
Their opportunity came with the disaster which befell the Roman army under Valerian (q.v.) at Edessa, a disaster, says ' The full text, both Greek and Palmyrene, with an English translation, is given in NSI, pp. 313-340.
After the captivity and death of Valerian, Gallienus succeeded to a merely nominal rule in the East, and was too careless and self-indulgent to take any active measures to recover the lost provinces.
Two other members of this distinguished family of the Valerian gens may be mentioned: Marcus Valerius Messalla, father of the preceding, consul in 53 B.C. He was twice accused of illegal practices in connexion with the elections; on the first occasion he was acquitted, in spite of his obvious guilt, through the eloquence of his uncle Quintus Hortensius; on the second he was condemned.
260 to 268, son of the emperor Valerian, was born about 218.
A rest for Mesopotamia seems to have followed; but in 258 Shapur, tempted by the troubles in the Roman empire, overran the country taking Nisibis and Carrhae, and investing Edessa, and .vhen Valerian invaded Mesopotamia he was eventually made prisoner, by Edessa (260).
Centranthus ruber (known as Pretty Betsy and Red Valerian): hardy, 2 to 3 ft., red.
This appears, on the one hand, in the use of expressions having a Modalistic ring about them - see especially the poems of Commodian, written about the time of Valerian - and, on the other hand, in the rejection of the doctrine that the Son is subordinate to the Father and is a creature (witness the controversy between Dionysius of Alexandria and Dionysius of Rome), as well as in the readiness of the West to accept the formula of Athanasius, that the Father and the Son are one and the same in substance (O,uoou6coc).
The emperor Valerian, who marched to encounter him, was overthrown at Edessa and taken prisoner (260).
(276293), the emperor Carus, burning to avenge the disaster of Valerian, penetrated into Mesopotamia without meeting opposition, and reduced Coche (near Seleucia) and Ctesiphon; but his sudden death, inil December of 283, precluded further success, and the Roman army returned home.
At an early age he entered the army, where he distinguished himself under the emperors Valerian, Claudius and Aurelian.
As bishop of Rome in 257, suffered martyrdom under Valerian on the 6th of August 258.
(Sapor) of Persia over the Roman emperor Valerian, A.D.
Bernhardt, Geschichte Roms von Valerian bis zu Diocletians Tod (1867); A.
In 251, when Decius revived the censorship with legislative and executive powers so extensive that it practically embraced the civil authority of the emperor, Valerian was chosen censor by the senate.
After the death of Decius Valerian retained the confidence of his successor, Trebonianus Gallus, who sent him to fetch troops to quell the rebellion of Aemilianus, governor of Moesia and Pannonia.
The soldiers in Raetia, however, proclaimed Valerian emperor; and marching slowly towards Rome he found both his rivals dead, slain by their own soldiers.
Valerian was about sixty-three years of age, and had scarcely the vigour to deal with the enemies that threatened every frontier of the empire.
The best known of these are cloves, pimento (allspice), myrtle, eucalyptus, caraway, fennel, dill, coriander, rosemary, lavender, peppermint, spearmint, nutmeg, cinnamon, sandal-wood, turpentine, juniper berries, valerian and sumbul.
In 260 the city was besieged by the Persians under Shapur I., and Valerian was defeated and made prisoner by its gates.
By Roman workmen sent for by Valerian who had been captured by the Persian king in 260.
That Valerian had a part in constructing these remarkable works does not rest upon any historical basis; we may, however, believe that the Sassanian Ardashir, or his son Shapur I, finding that the river, having its bed in friable soil, was daily getting lower and finally threatened to leave the town and the Mian-do-ab district dry by not filling the Darian canal, engaged Roman workmen.
Valerian chose for his own part the war in the East, where Antioch had fallen into the hands of a Persian vassal and Armenia was occupied by Shapur (Sapor) I., while in 258 the Goths ravaged Asia Minor.
Valerian recovered Antioch, fought in Mesopotamia with mixed success and finally was taken captive.
See Trebellius Pollio, Life of Valerian (frags.); Aurelius Victor, Caesares, 32; Eutropius ix.