The prince of Monaco, the German " Valdivia " expedition under Professor Chun (1898), and the combined Antarctic expeditions (1903-1904).
Pedro de Valdivia in 1540 made an expedition into the country of the Araucanian Indians of Chile, and was the first to explore the eastern base of the Andes in what is now Argentine Patagonia.
Actual or projected routes for telegraph cables across the deep sea have also been sounded with extreme accuracy in many cases; but beyond these lines of sounding the vast spaces of the ocean remain unplumbed save for the rare researches of scientific expeditions, such as those of the " Challenger," the " Valdivia," the " Albatross " and the " Scotia."
Among good local annalists may be mentioned Juan Gilberto Valdivia, who has written a history of Arequipa, and Pio Benigno Mesa, the author of the Annals of Cuzco.
By Valdivia, and W.
Brooke, a midshipman of the U.S.N., invented the principle on the " Valdivia " in 1898-1899, and to those of the " Belgica " already foreshadowed by Nicolaus Cusanus in the 15th century in 1897-1898, the " Gauss " in 1902-1903, and the " Scotia " and by Robert Hooke in the 17th, of using a heavy weight so in 1903-1904.
A pure blue colour has been observed in the cold southern region, where the " Valdivia " found o-2 Forel in 55° S.
Wissenschaften (Vienna, 1891-1904); Die Deutsche 11 Valdivia " Tief-See Expedition, 1898-1899 (Berlin, 1900); M.
Spadella cephaloptera is, however, littoral and oviposits on sea-weed, and the "Valdivia" brought home a deep-sea species.
The Chilean Andes between Tacna and Valdivia are crossed by 24 passes, the majority of them at elevations exceeding 10,000 ft.
The next important harbour is that of El Corral, at the mouth of the Valdivia river and 15 m.
These are the Maipo (Maypo or Maipu), Rapel, Mataquito, Maule, Itata, Bio-Bio, Imperial, Tolten, Valdivia or Calle-Calle, Bueno and Maullin.
These lakes are Villarica on the southern frontier of Cautin, Rinihue and Ranco in Valdivia, and Puyehue, Rupanco, Llanquihue and Todos los Santos in Llanquihue.
At Valdivia, in 39° 49' S.
The territory north of the Bio-Bio was originally divided into 13 provinces, besides which the Spaniards held Chiloe, Juan Fernandez and Valdivia, the latter being merely a military outpost.
Potatoes also are widely cultivated, but the humid regions of the south, particularly from Valdivia to Chiloe, produce the greatest quantity.
Coal is found also in Valdivia, on the island of Chiloe, and in the vicinity of Punta Arenas on the Straits of Magellan.
The normal schools for males are located at Santiago, Chinn and Valdivia; and for females at La Serena, Santiago and Concepcion.
In 1540 Pizarro sent Pedro de Valdivia to make a regular conquest and settlement of Chile.
Valdivia founded Santiago, the present capital of Chile, in February 1541, and proceeded to build the towns of La Serena, Concepcion, Villarica, Imperial, Valdivia and Angol, in order to secure his hold on the country.
But the Indians fought desperately for their independence, and in 1553 a general rising of the tribes ended in the defeat and death of Valdivia and in the destruction of most of his settlements.
Internal development was promoted by the working of the silver mines of Copiapo and the coal mines of Lota, by the building of railways and erection of telegraphs, and by the colonization of the rich Valdivia province with German settlers.
VALDIVIA, a southern province of Chile, bounded N.
The rivers are the Tolten on the northern boundary, the Valdivia, or Calle-Calle, with its large tributaries in the central part of the province, and the Bueno on the southern frontier.
The Valdivia (about loo m.
The Valdivia is the outlet for Lake Rinihue and is navigable for a long distance.
Valdivia is one of the most recently settled provinces and has a large immigrant element, chiefly German.
The capital is Valdivia, a flourishing city on the Valdivia river, 12 m.
The port of Corral, at the mouth of the Valdivia river, in lat.
" Valdivia," iii.