The coronation of Birger Jarlsson Valdemar took place in the cathedral in 1251; and in the reign of Gustavus Vasa several important diets were held in the town.
VALDEMAR II., king of Denmark (1170-1241), was the second son of Valdemar I.
VALDEMAR II., king of Denmark (1170-1241), was the second son of Valdemar I.
Already during his brother's lifetime, as duke of Schleswig, Valdemar had successfully defended Denmark against German aggression.
Immediately after his coronation, he hastened to his newly won territories, accompanied by the principal civil and ecclesiastical dignitaries of Denmark, and was solemnly acknowledged lord of Northalbingia (the district lying between the Eider and the Elbe) at Lubeck, Otto IV., then in difficulties, voluntarily relinquishing all German territory north of the Elbe to Valdemar, who in return recognized Otto as German emperor.
By closing Lubeck Valdemar had German trade and the German over-seas settlements entirely at his mercy.
Valdemar at once cultivated the friendship of the new emperor; and Frederick, by an imperial brief, issued in December 1214 and subsequently confirmed by Innocent III.
An attempt by Otto in 1215 to recover Northalbingia was easily frustrated by Valdemar, who henceforth devoted himself to the extension of the Danish empire over the eastern Baltic shores.
Two years later Valdemar, urged by Archbishop Anders Suneson, also appeared off the Esthonian coast and occupied the isle of Oesel.
In 1210 Valdemar led a second expedition eastwards, this time directed against heathen Prussia and Samland, the chief result of which was the subjection of Mestwin, duke of Pomerania, the leading chieftain in those parts.
Valdemar cheerfully undertook a new crusade "for the honour of the Blessed Virgin and the remission of my own sins."
Valdemar was now, after the king of England, the most powerful potentate in the north of Europe.
It is doubtful whether even the genius of Valdemar would have proved equal to such a stupendous task.
On the other hand Valdemar, by prudent diplomacy, contrived to retain the greater portion of Danish Esthonia (compact of Stensby, 1238).
With rare resignation Valdemar devoted the remainder of his life to the great work of domestic reform.
Valdemar was twice married, his first consort being Dragomir (Dagmar) of Bohemia, his second Berengaria of Portugal.
All his four sons, Valdemar, Eric, Abel and Christopher became kings of Denmark.
Valdemar IV >>
In 1201 the city submitted to Valdemar of Schleswig, after his victory over the count of Holstein, but in 1225, owing to the capture of King Valdemar II.
Valdemar had no longer a competitor.
We may form some idea of the extent and the severity of their incursions from the fact that at the beginning of the reign of Valdemar the whole of the Danish eastern coast lay wasted and depopulated.
Both places were captured in 1169 by a great expedition under the command of Valdemar and Absalon; the hideous colossal idol of Riigievit was chopped into firewood for the Danish caldrons, and the Wends were christened at the point of the sword and placed beneath the jurisdiction of the see of Roskilde.
For at the beginning of his reign Valdemar leaned largely upon the Germans and even went the length, against the advice of Absalon, of acknowledging the overlordship of the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa at the reichstag of Dole, 1162.1162.
Valdemar II >>
On Erik's death (1250) Birger's son Valdemar was elected king while his father acted as regent.
The duke was aided in this work by the alliance of Valdemar I., king of Denmark, and, it is said, by engines of war brought from Italy.
A war with Valdemar of Denmark, caused by a quarrel over the booty obtained from 1 The see was transferred to Schwerin by Henry in 1167.
VALDEMAR IV., king of Denmark (c. 1 3 20 - 1 375), was the youngest son of Christopher II.
Valdemar was brought up at the court of the German emperor, Louis of Bavaria, during those miserable years when the realm of Denmark was partitioned among Holstein counts and German Ritter, while Scania, "the bread-basket" of the monarchy, sought deliverance from anarchy under the protection of Magnus of Sweden.
(1340), who for nine years had held Jutland and Funen and dominated the rest of Denmark, first opened Valdemar's way to the throne, and on midsummer day 1340 he was elected king at a Landsting held at Viborg, after consenting to espouse Helveg, the sister of his most important confederate, Valdemar, duke of Schleswig.
First Valdemar aimed at the recovery of Zealand, which was actually partitioned among a score of Holstein mortgagees who ruled their portions despotically from their strong castles, and sucked the people dry.
The oppressed clergy and peasantry regarded Valdemar as their natural deliverer; but so poor and friendless was he that the work of redemption proved painfully slow.
In 1349, at the Landsting of Ringsted, Valdemar proudly rendered an account of his stewardship to the Estates of Zealand, and the bishop of Roskilde congratulated him on having so miraculously delivered his people from foreign thraldom.
Valdemar now gave full play to his endless energy.
In north German politics he interfered vigorously to protect his brotherin-law the Margrave Louis of Brandenburg against the lords of Mecklenburg and the dukes of Pomerania, with such success that the emperor, Charles IV., at the conference of Bautzen, was reconciled to the Brandenburger and allowed Valdemar an annual charge of 16,000 silver marks on the city of Lubeck (1349) Some years later Valdemar seriously thought of reviving the ancient claims of Denmark upon England, and entered into negotiations with the French king, John, who in his distress looked to this descendant of the ancient Vikings for help. A matrimonial alliance between the two crowns was even discussed, and Valdemar offered, for the huge sum of 600,000 gulden, to transport 12,000 men to England.
But the chronic state of rebellion in western Denmark, which, fomented by the discontented Jutish magnates, lasted with short intervals from 1350 to 1360, compelled Valdemar to renounce these farreaching and fantastic designs.
Valdemar now turned his eyes from the west to the east, where lay the "kingdom of Scania."
Valdemar had indeed pledged it solemnly and irrevocably to King Magnus of Sweden, who had held it for twenty years; but profiting by the difficulties of Magnus with his Norwegian subjects, after skilfully securing his own position by negotiations with Albert of Mecklenburg and the Hanseatic League, Valdemar suddenly and irresistibly invaded Scania, and by the end of 1361 all the old Danish lands, except North Holland, were recovered.
By the recovery of Scania Valdemar had become the lord of the great herring-fishery market held every autumn from St Bartholomew's day (24th of August) to St Denis's day (9th of October) on the hammer-shaped peninsula projecting from the S.W.
In July 1361 Valdemar set sail from Denmark at the head of a great fleet, defeated a peasant army before Visby, and a few days later the burgesses of Visby made a breach in their walls through which the Danish monarch passed in triumph.
The conquest of Gotland at once led to a war between Valdemar and Sweden allied with the Hanseatic towns; but in the spring of 1362 Valdemar repulsed from the fortress of Helsingborg a large Hanseatic fleet provided with "shooting engines" (cannon) and commanded by Johan Wittenburg, the burgomaster of Lubeck.
Valdemar was now at the height of his power.
At Easter-tide 1368, on the very eve of this general attack, Valdemar departed for three years to Germany, leaving his realm in the capable hands of the earl-marshal Henning Podbusk.
The conditions of peace were naturally humiliating for Valdemar,' though, ultimately, he contrived to render illusory many of the inordinate privileges he was obliged to concede.
ABSALON (c. 1128-1201), Danish archbishop and statesman, was born about 1128, the son of Asser Rig of Fjenneslev, at whose castle he and his brother Esbjorn were brought up along with the young prince Valdemar, afterwards Valdemar I.
Both Absalon and Valdemar narrowly escaped assassination at the hands of their treacherous host on this occasion, but at length escaped to Jutland, whither Sweyn followed them, but was defeated and slain at the battle of Grathe Heath.
The same year (1158) which saw Valdemar ascend the Danish throne saw Absalon elected bishop of Roskilde.
Henceforth Absalon was the chief counsellor of Valdemar, and the promoter of that imperial policy which, for three generations, was to give Denmark the dominion of the Baltic. Briefly, it was Absalon's intention to clear the northern sea of the Wendish pirates, who inhabited that portion of the Baltic littoral which we now call Pomerania, and ravaged the Danish coasts so unmercifully that at the accession of Valdemar one-third of the realm of Denmark lay wasted and depopulated.
He was now but fifty-seven, but his strenuous life had aged him, and he was content to resign the command of fleets and armies to younger men, like Duke Valdemar, afterwards Valdemar and to confine himself to the administration of the empire which his genius had created.
It was contrary to his advice and warnings that Valdemar I.
(1163-1202), king of Denmark, eldest son of Valdemar was crowned in his seventh year (1170), as his father's co-regent, so as to secure the succession.
During his twenty years' reign Denmark advanced steadily along the path of greatness and prosperity marked out for her by Valdemar I., consolidating and extending her dominion over the North Baltic coast and adopting a more and more independent attitude towards Germany.
The war continued intermittently till 1201, when Duke Valdemar, Canute's younger brother, conquered the whole of Holstein, and Duke Adolf was subsequently captured at Hamburg and sent in chains to Denmark.
The Order of the Dannebrog is, according to Danish tradition, of miraculous origin, and was founded by Valdemar II.
It was then only a fishing village, and remained so until about the middle of the 12th century, when Valdemar I.
In 1306 it managed to repel the Norwegians, but in 1362, and again in 1368, it was captured by the opponents of Valdemar Atterdag.
In 1230 the conquest of Prussia was begun by the Order, although not under his immediate leadership. In 1225 he reconciled Valdemar II., king of Denmark, with Henry I., count of Schwerin, and thus won again the land on the right bank of the Elbe for the Empire, and the recognition of imperial superiority over Denmark.
After Bouvines he purchased the assistance of Valdemar II., king of Denmark, by ceding to him a large stretch of land along the Baltic coast; and, promising to go on crusade, he secured his coronation at Aix-la-Chapelle in July 1215.