The Malays formerly suffered severely from smallpox epidemics, but in the portion of the peninsula under British rule vaccination has been introduced, and the ravages of the disease no longer assume serious dimensions.
Of the sum spent by the communes, about 1/2 goes for the sanitary service (doctors, midwives, vaccination), 3/4 for the maintenance of foundlings, i11 for the support of the sick in hospitals, and I~1 for sheltering the aged and needy.
By means of " vaccination " we are enabled to induce an active immunity against infection by certain pathogenic bacteria.
More important in their results than any of these works were the discoveries of Edward Jenner, respecting the prevention of small-pox by vaccination, in which he superseded the partially useful but dangerous practice of inoculation, which.
Coincidently therewith, the hope of neutralizing infections by fortifying individual immunity has grown brighter, for it appears that immunity is not a very radical character, but one which, as in the case of vaccination, admits of modification and accurate adjustment in the individual, in no long time and by no very tedious methods.
Out of this fund certain expenses of guardians in connexion with the maintenance of indoor paupers and lunatics, the salaries of officers, the maintenance of children in poorlaw schools, valuation, vaccination, registration, &c., are paid.
Smallpox is frequent on the coast, but is diminishing before vaccination; other epidemic diseases are extremely rare.
Vaccination is common except in the cities, - the women often performing the operation themselves when medical assistance cannot be got.
Administrative law, including the regulation of urban and rural local government, state and local taxation and finance, education, public works, the liquor traffic, vaccination, adulteration, charities, asylums, prisons, the inspection of mines and factories, general laws relating to corporations, railways, labor questions.
His brother, Michel Augustin Thouret (1748-1810), a physician, was a keen opponent of the ideas of Mesmer and a promoter of vaccination in France.
In 1845 parochial boards were created for relief of the poor, their powers being afterwards extended to deal with the statutes concerning burial-grounds, the registration of births, deaths and marriages, vaccination, public health, public libraries and other matters.
The act of 1894, as we have seen, not only established the Local Government Board, consisting of the secretary for Scotland, the solicitor-general, the under-secretary and three appointed members - a vice-president, a lawyer and a medical officer of public health - but also replaced the parochial boards by parish councils, empowered to deal among other things with poor relief, lunacy, vaccination, libraries, baths, recreation grounds, disused churchyards, rights of way, parochial endowments, and the formation of special lighting and scavenging districts.
To Edward Jenner we owe the discovery that vaccination protects against smallpox, and it is now generally acknowledged that smallpox and vaccine are ' Quoted by Weir Mitchell, "Researches on the Venom of the Rattlesnake," Smithsonian Contributions (1860), p. 97.
In Forty-five Years of Registration Statistics (1885) he maintained that vaccination is useless and dangerous.
It really is embarrassing how many scientific advancements resulted from accidents, including Alexander Fleming's 1928 discovery of penicillin, Louis Pasteur's 1879 discovery of the principle of vaccination, and Wilhelm Roentgen's accidental discovery of X-rays, for which he earned a Nobel Prize.