Podébrad, who had gained the throne of Bohemia with the aid of the Hussites and Utraquists, had long been in ill odour at Rome, and in 1465 Pope Paul II.
For some years after the death of John Huss (1415), the majority of his followers were split into two contending factions: the Hussite Wars began; and the net result of the conflict seemed to be that while the Utraquists, content with the grant of the cup to the laity, were recognized by the pope as the national Church of Bohemia (1433), the more radical Taborites were defeated at the battle of Lipan (1434) and ceased to exist.
This doctrine became the watchword of the moderate Hussites who were known as the Utraquists or Calixtines (calix, the chalice), in Bohemian, podoboji; while the more advanced Hussites were soon known as the Taborites, from the city of Tabor that became their centre.
Tabor soon became the centre of the advanced Hussites, who differed from the Utraquists by recognizing only two sacraments - Baptism and Communion - and by rejecting most of the ceremonial of the Roman Church.
Korybutovic, however, remained but a short time in Bohemia; after his departure civil war broke out, the Taborites opposing in arms the more moderate Utraquists, who at this period are also called by the chroniclers the "Praguers," as Prague was their principal stronghold.
In 1434 war again broke out between the Utraquists and the Taborites.
After the beginning of the German Reformation many Utraquists adopted to a large extent the doctrines of Luther and Calvin; and in 1567 obtained the repeal of the compacts, which no longer seemed sufficiently far-reaching.
After his departure, civil war between the moderate Hussites (Calixtines or Utraquists) and the advanced Taborite party broke out for the first time, though there had previously been isolated disturbances between them.
The new officials appear to have supported the more advanced Hussite party, while Rozmital and the members of the town council of Prague who had acted in concert with him had been the allies of the Romanists and those Utraquists who were nearest to the Church of Rome.
Some of the more advanced Utraquists differed but little from the German Lutherans, while the Bohemian Brethren, who at this moment greatly increased in influence through the accession of several powerful nobles, strongly sympathized with the Protestants of Germany.
Only a few of the Romanists and more retrograde Utraquists obeyed his order.
This fact, which became known in Bohemia, secured for him the support of the Bohemian church reformers, while the Romanists and retrograde Utraquists were traditionally on the side of the house of Habsburg.
These enactments had indeed granted freedom of worship to the most moderate Utraquists - men who, except that they claimed the right to receive the communion in both kinds, hardly differed in their faith from the Roman church.
Had used the Compacts as an instrument which justified him in oppressing the Bohemian Brethren, and the advanced Utraquists, whose teaching now differed but little from that of Luther.
He had argued that all those who professed doctrines differing from the Church of Rome more widely than did the retrograde Utraquists, were outside the pale of religious toleration.
He finally, however, consented to exempt the Lutherans and advanced Utraquists from the jurisdiction of the consistory, and allowed them to choose fifteen defenders - five of whom were to belong to each of the estates - who were to have supreme control over the Lutheran church.
It appeared therefore as a menace to the Lutherans - and all the more advanced Utraquists had now embraced that creed - as well as to the Bohemian Brethren.
They further demanded that the Protestants - as it now became customary to call jointly the Utraquists, Lutherans and Bohemian Brethren - and the Roman Catholics should have an equal right to hold all the offices of state, and that the power of the Jesuits to acquire land should be limited.
Of the writings of the more moderate Hussites, known as the Calixtines or Utraquists, some have been preserved.