The idea of a Utopia is, even in literature, far older than More's romance; it appears in the Timaeus of Plato and is fully developed in his Republic. The idealized description of Sparta in Plutarch's life of Lycurgus belongs to the same class of literary Utopias, though it professes to be historical.
Other Utopias are the "Voyage en Salente" in Fenelon's Telemaque (1699); Etienne Cabet's Voyage en Icarie (1840); Bulwer Lytton's The Coming Race (1871); Samuel Butler's Erewhon (1872) and Erewhon Revisited (1901); Edward Bellamy's Looking Backward (1888); William Morris's News from Nowhere (1890); H.
Many Utopias, such as the Fable of the Bees and Erewhon, are designed to satirize existing social conditions as well as to depict a more perfect civilization.
A large number of the more recent Utopias have been inspired by socialistic or communistic ideals; among these may be mentioned Freiland, ein soziales Zukunftsbild (1890) and Reise nach Freiland (1893), by the Austrian political economist Theodor Hertzka (b.
Like other Utopias, it is an easy-going compromise between dreams and possibilities.