The Pliocene appears only in the coast region of the Black and Azov Seas, but it is widely developed in the Aral-Caspian region, where, however, the Ust-Urt and the Obshchiy Syrt rose above the sea.
The second-class fortresses are Kronstadt and Sveaborg in the Gulf of Finland, Ivangorod in Poland, Libau on the Baltic Sea, Kerch on the Black Sea and Vladivostok on the Pacific. In the third class are Viborg in Finland, Ossovets and Ust Dvinsk (or Dunamunde) in Lithuania, Sevastopol and Ochakov on the Black Sea, and Kars and Batum in Caucasia.
AMUR (known also as the Sakhalin-ula), a river of eastern Asia, formed by the confluence of the Argun and the Shilka, at Ust-Stryelka, in 53° 19' N.
Both these rivers come from the south-west: the Argun, or Kerulen as it is called above Lake Kulun (Dalai-nor), through which it flows about half way between its source and Ust-Stryelka, rises in 49° N.
The principal water-divide in this highland region is, however, the range of Egri-dagh (Ararat), which j ust south of 40° S.
A little farther down it becomes completely navigable, and attains a breadth of 4200 ft.; but between the village of Ostrovki and that of Ust-Tosna it passes over a limestone bed, which produces a series of rapids, and reduces the width of the river from 1050 to 840 and that of the navigable passage from 350 to 175 ft.
Rock-salt occurs at several places on the Lena and in Transbaikalia, and salt-springs are numerous - those of Ust-kutsk on the Lena and of Usolie near Irkutsk being the most noteworthy.
Marble is found in the valley of the Majerda (at Shemtu), at Jebel Ust (about 35 m.
Ust and ash, gave rise to torrents of pasty mud, that flowed p own the slopes and overwhelmed houses and villages.
The government is under the administration of the ministry of war, and is divided into nine districts - Donets (chief town, Kamenskaya with 23,576 inhabitants in 1897), First Don district (Konstantinovskaya, 8800), Second Don district (NizhneChirskaya, 15,196), Rostov (Rostov-on-Don, 119,889), Salsky (Velikoknyazheskaya), Taganrog (Taganrog, 58,928 in 1900), Ust-medvyeditsa (Ust-medvyeditsa, 16,000), Khoper (Uryupina, 9600), Cherkasky (Novo-cherkassk, 52,005).
A little more than twelve months later, a coup d'etat placed the tsesarevna Elizabeth on the throne (December 6, 1741), and Ivan and his family were imprisoned in the fortress of Diinamtinde (Ust Dvinsk) (December 1 3, 1742) after a preliminary detention a Riga, from whence the new empress had at first decided to send them home to Brunswick.
From 1847 onwards they once more turned their attention to this region,- and began to make settlements, especially after 1854, when a powerful flotilla sailed from Ust-Stryelka down to the mouth of the river.
The coastline of the Gulf of Mortvyi Kultuk on the north-east is, on the other hand, formed by a range of low calcareous hills, constituting the rampart of the Ust-Urt plateau, which intervenes between the Caspian and the Sea of Aral.
The eastern shore of this section of the sea is also formed by the Ust-Urt plateau, which rises 550 ft.
The Ust-Urt recedes from the Caspian and circles round the Gulf of Kara-boghaz or Kara-bugaz (also called Aji-darya and Kuli-darya).
Ust-Urt), which divided it into an eastern and a western portion, communicating by one or two narrow straits only, such as on the south the Sary-kamysh depression, and on the norththe line of the lakes of Chumyshty and Asmantai.
But the winter extremes go far below this range: during the prevalence of north-east winds the thermometer drops to -20°, or even lower, on the surrounding steppes, while on the Ust-Urt plateau a temperature of -30 is not uncommon.
The lake is surrounded on the north by steppes; on the west by the rocky plateau of Ust-Urt, which separates it from the Caspian; on the south by the alluvial district of Khiva; and on the east by the Kyzyl-kum, or Red Sand Desert.
The present writer is even inclined to think that, besides this southern communication with the Caspian, Lake Aral may have been, even in historical times, connected with the Mortvyi Kultuk (Tsarevich) Gulf of the Caspian, discharging part of its water into that sea through a depression of the Ust-Urt plateau, which is marked by a chain of lakes (Chumyshty, Asmantai).
The ores of the Altai proper nearly always appear in irregular veins, containing silver, lead, copper and gold - sometimes all together, - and they are, or were, worked chiefly by Zmeinogorsk (or Zmeiev), Zyryanovsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk and Riddersk (abandoned in 1861).
The capital of the Altai region is Barnaul, the centre of the mining administration and an animated commercial town; Biysk is the commercial centre; Kuznetsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk, and the mining towns of Kolyvan, Zmeinogorsk, Riddersk and Salairsk are the next largest places.
Regulation has been a burning political question since 1876, the constitution making it the duty of the legislature to " correct abuses and prevent un j ust discriminations and extortions in all charges of express, telegraph and railroad companies " within the state.
The Ust-Urt plateau and the Mugojar Mountains prevented it from spreading north-westward, and a narrow channel connected it along the Uzboi with the Caspian, which sent a broad gulf to the east, spread up to the Volga, and was connected by the Manych with the Black Sea basin.
Ust-11 KarkaraIintk 9 ?
Later generations have learned by repeated experience that the eloquence of Hyde Park orators is not the voice of England; there were some even then-among those not immediately responsible for keeping orderwho urged the government to ti-ust the people;l but with the object-lesson of France before them it is not altogether surprising that ministers refused to believe ih the harmlessness of societies, which not only kept up a fraternal correspondence with the National Convention and the Jacobi.
Luku!u A Longitude E.ust of Capitol Pygmy Forest (from the races inhabiting it), the Aruwimi or Ituri Forest (from the rivers traversing it), the Stanley Forest (from its discoverer), or the Great Congo Forest.
The larger ships cannot reach Riga, and are unloaded at Ust-Dvinsk (formerly Dunamiinde).